Echinoderms The name Echinoderm comes from the Greek echinos meaning “spiny”and derma meaning “skin”

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Echinoderms </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The name Echinoderm comes from the Greek echinos meaning spinyand derma meaning skin </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Classes Asteroidea (Sea Star) Crinoidea (Sea Lillies) Ophiuroidea (Brittle Stars) Echinoidea (Sea Urchins) Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers) There are 20 extinct classes </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Objectives Describe the major characteristics of echinoderms Compare and contrast the lifestyles of the organisms each of the five echinoderm classes Describe how sea stars feed </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Describe the major characteristics of echinoderms Endoskeleton Living tissue with endoskeleton underneath Composed Of Ossicles Functions like Arthropods Exoskeleton, providing muscle attachment sites shell like protection </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Objective Continued Five Part Radial Symmetry arms extending radially from a central point Water Vascular System water filled system of interconnected canals and tube feet </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> How They Move NEchinoderms move by using their tube feet NThey have several thousand on their arms or undersides </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Tube feet N Tube feet may: Nhave good suction Ntaper to a point Nor be adapted to a certain function. N Mucus contains adhesive and de- adhesive. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Objective Continued Coelomic circulation and respiration particles move easily through large fluid filled coelom </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Compare Contrast Lifestyles of Five Classes Sea Stars 1,500 species Most important predator five part body plan carnivore </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Crown-Of-Thorns Crown-of-thorns consumes cnidarians. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Sea Star Larva Larva and adults have different body plans. The adult is radially symmetric and the larva is bilaterally symmetric </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Objective Two Continued Sea Lilies most primitive sessile five part body plan mouth located on upper surface </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Objective Two Continued Brittle Stars 2,000 species slender arms that move in pairs sometimes grouped with sea stars five part body plan </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Objective Two Continued Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars lack arms five part body plan hard endoskeleton 900 species </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Heart and Fire Urchins </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Objective Two Continued Sea Cucumbers 1,500 species Ossicles are small and not connected (soft-bodied) tube feet modified into tentacles for eating </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Sea Cucumbers Mouth surrounded by dozens of tube feet; modified into tentacles. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Sea Cucumber </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Describe How Sea Stars Feed Active Predator and Carnivore eat shell fish and other star fishes mud swallowers some extrude their mouth to digest externally and internally </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> All Echinoderms Share Four Major Characteristics Objective : Describe the major characteristics of echinoderms. Echinoderms have an endoskeleton - Composed of individual plates called ossicles. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Echinoderm characteristics Coelomic circulation and respiration : Body cavity is a simple circulatory system. Respiration performed by skin gills. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Characteristics of Echinoderms Five-Part radial symmetry : Five arms extending radially from a central point. Water-Vascular system : Water filled system of canals and tube feet. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Sexual Reproduction NMost echinoderms get together before spawning to increase chances of fertilization </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Asexual Reproduction NSuccessful regeneration, or regrowth, requires a body wall that can be torn easily and reseal wounds easily. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Indirect Development NFertilized egg divides many times to produce a hollow ball of cells known as the Blastula </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Indirect Development NThe ball of cells grows inward to form a cavity which will become a simple, primitive gut </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> . </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Pro-Mouth Deudi-Poop Anus Blastopore Athletes </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Phylogenetic Tree Blankenship </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Question #1 List the four major echinoderm characteristics. Endoskeleton (Exoskeleton Like) Five Part Radial Symmetry Water Vascular System Coelomic Circulation and Respiration </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Question #2 Explain why some echinoderms have bodies that are softer than others. Some do not have a fused skeleton, therefore are soft- bodied. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Question #3 Compare and contrast the feeding habits of a sea star and a sea cucumber Both sea stars and cucumbers have tube feet, but the cucumbers have developed into feeding tentacles. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Question #4 Name the echinoderms that are completely sessile, and describe their basic structure. Sea lilies are sessile. Sea lilies are attached to the ocean floor by a stalk. Feather stars have a stalk in early development, but do not remain sessile. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Chordates 96% are Vertebrates. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> What is a chordate? A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; and a tail that extends beyond the anus. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Characteristics of Chordates All chordates share four characteristics: 1) dorsal, hollow nerve cord 2) notochord 3) pharyngeal pouches 4) a tail that extends beyond the anus Some chordates have these characteristics as adults. Others have them only as embryos. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Chordate Structure </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Notochord A notochord is a long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord. Most chordates only have a notochord only when theyre embryos. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Pharyngeal pouches Are paired structures in the throat In some amphibians they are slits that connect the pouches to the outside of the body. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Pharyngeal Pouches Pharyngeal pouches are paired structures in the throat (pharynx) region. In fishes and amphibians, slits develop that connect the pharyngeal pouches to the outside of the body. The slits may then develop gills that are used for gas exchange. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Vertebrae Individual segments that make up the backbone. It encloses and protects the spinal cord. It also provides support. Provides muscles a place to attach and is part of the endoskeleton. Grows when the animal grows and does not need to be shed. Contains living cells and non-living material and the living cells make the non-living materials. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Although nonvertebrates chordates lack a vertebral column, they share a common ancestor with vertebrates. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Nonvertebrate Chordates </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Nonvertebrate Chordates The two groups of Nonvertebrate chordates are tunicates and lancelets. Both are soft bodied organisms. They contain hollow nerve cords, notochord, pharyngeal pouches, and a tail (at some time of their life). </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Tunicates They are filter feeders. They are in the subphylum urochordata. When they are adults they do not have a notochord or a tail. Blue lollypop tunicate blue palm coral. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Non Vertebrate Chordates </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Sea squirt </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Sea squirt colonies </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Lancelets </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Subphylum : Cephalochordata They are usually found buried in sand in shallow parts of temperate or tropical seas. Lancelets have a closed circulatory system, rather than an open circulatory system </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> They have a definite head region where its mouth is located. -The mouth opens up to the pharynx lined with gill slits. </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Questions and Answers! </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> What is a Chordate? </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Answer! Animal that has: A dorsal, ventral hollow nerve cord Notochord Pharynegeal pouches Tail extending beyond the anus </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> What are notochords and pharyngeal pouches? </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Answer! A notochord is a long, supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord. Usually, chordates only have them when they are embryos. Pharyngeal pouches are paired structures in the throat region. In some chordates, they may develop into gills. </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> What is a vertebrae? </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Answer! Vertebrae are individual segments of the backbone. </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> What are tunicates and lancelets? </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Answer! Tunicates are filter-feeders. They dont have tails or notochords in the adult stage. Lancelets are small fish-like creatures who live in sandy ocean bottoms, with a definite head region containing a mouth. They have a closed circulatory system. </li> </ul>