echinoderm pavel aleksandra

Download Echinoderm pavel  aleksandra

Post on 15-Jun-2015

783 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. Echinoderm Hristova, Aleksandra Kounov, Pavel 10/4

2. Echinoderm

  • Phylum of marine animals
  • Known as Sea stars
  • 7000 living species
  • Name comes from Greek
    • Echin Spiny
    • Derma skin [3]

http://www.graphicmania.net/wp-content/uploads/sea-star-pair-758303-ga.jpg 3. Symmetry

  • Adults redial symmetry
  • Larvae bilateral symmetry [2]

http://dj003.k12.sd.us/images/32-05-BodySymmetry-L.gif 4. Anatomy

  • Central disk- have nerve rings and nerve cord on the arms
  • Digestive glands- have digestive juices that help storage of nutrients
  • Radial canal- fluid containing, form the water vascular system
  • Madreporite- where the water flow in or out [1]

April 15, 2010 http://www.biog1105-1106.org/labs/deuts/media/echinowatervasc.jpg 5. Ancestors and Place in the Cladogram

  • Kingdom:Animalia
  • Subkingdom:Eumetazoa
  • Superphylum:Deuterostomia
  • Classes:6
    • Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Asteroidea, Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, Concentricycloidea
  • Most close to the Birds
  • All classes of Echinoderm came from Crinoidea [3]

6. Cladograms http://www.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/efauna/images/lophotrochozoa.jpg http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/n/ne/neoaves_alternative_cladogram.png 7. Characteristics

  • Water vascular system (Derived)
    • Network of fluid-filled canals- tube foots
    • Gas exchange, feeding, locomotion
  • Decentralized nervous system
    • Interconnected neurons with no central brain
    • Ganglion- tissue of nerve cells
  • Skeleton
    • Ossicles, calcium carbonate, and several proteins [3]

8. Regeneration

  • The process in which damaged or lost body parts re-grow
  • Echinoderm may discharge parts when feeling danger
  • These parts are quickly regenerated
  • Leads to reproduction [2]

April 15, 2010 http://fotosa.ru/stock_photo/Animals/p_63747.jpg 9. Reproduction

  • Sexual
  • 2-3-year-old
  • Egg and sperm are released in the water
  • In 3 species (sea cucumbers, sea stars, and brittle stars) internal fertilization [3]
  • Asexual
  • Sea stars and Brittle stars
  • When a sea star loses an arm, it regenerates the arm and the arm regenerates the rest of the body. [2]

10. Avoiding Predation

  • Many animals such as sharks and crabs eat echinoderms
  • So EVOLUTION
  • Toxins delivered by the tube feet
  • Discharge of sticky entangling threats
  • Painful injuries when touching [3]

April 15, 2010 11. Feeding

  • Different for every species
  • Shellfish, sea stars, particles in the water
  • Crinoids when food particles touches the surface the tube feet push them to the mouth
  • Sea cucumbers suck large amount of water and absorb the useful particles
  • Sea stars lock their arms around the victim, release gastric juices and digest the animal alive [3]

April 15, 2010 12. Representatives of the Phylum

  • Sea Stars
  • Sand Dollars
  • Feature Star

April 15, 2010 http://irati.pnte.cfnavarra.es/cpsadrw/la_voz_menuda/blogs/media/blogs/ingles/seastar.jpg http://www.animalpictures1.com/data/media/109/Sand_Dollar-2.jpg http:// www.onearth.com/gallery/seafeatuer.jpg 13. Sea Stars

  • Multiple arms
  • Moves when the tube feet extend, grip and release
  • Tube feet catch clams and oysters
  • Regeneration
  • Live everywhere in the oceans [1]

April 15, 2010 14. Sand Dollars

  • Have no arms
  • Five rows of tube feet -> motion
  • Flat disks
  • Catch small organisms with the tube feet that they can swallow whole
  • Lives everywhere in the oceans
  • Ecological role cleans the sea floor from food particles [1]

April 15, 2010 15. Feature Star

  • Crawl using flexible arms
  • Swallow big amounts of water and eat the useful particles (suspension eating)
  • Lives everywhere in the oceans [1]

April 15, 2010 16. Human Interactions

  • May get injuries from a sea urchin
  • Sushi
    • 50 000 kg of sea urchins and sea cucumbers are captured every yearin Japan, Peru and France. [3]

April 15, 2010 http://i270.photobucket.com/albums/jj96/beaubienb/sushi.jpg 17. Fun Fact

  • Echinoderms have pigment cells
  • Their color is caused by the sun light [3]

April 15, 2010 http://www.perfumezilla.com/images_product/lancaster-sun-protection-precious-sun-global-protection-cellular-support-spf-women545313.jpg 18. Work Cited

  • Campbell, Neil A. Biology . Boston: Pearson, 2008. Print. [1]
  • Wray, Gregory A. "Echinodermata." Tree of Life . Duke University, 14 Dec. 1999. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. .[2]
  • Wikipedia. "Echinoderm." Wikipedia . Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. http :// en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Echinoderm[3] .