earthquakes and landslides
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Post on 22-Apr-2015
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DESCRIPTIONHey! I am sudeep saxena (A civil engg.) 2nd year, study in MPCT ,Gwalior. This file of my new presentation on Earthquakes and landslides.
- 1. Introduction of Earthquake Causes Epicenter Fault Types of Fault What is Plate tectonics ? What is Seismograph ? What is Richter Scale ?
- 2. Earthquakes are the shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earths surface. They are the Earth's natural means of releasing stress.
- 3. There are about 20 plates along the surface of the earth that move continuously and slowly past each other. When the plates squeeze or stretch, huge rocks form at their edges and the rocks shift with great force, causing an earthquake. As the plates move they put forces on themselves and each other. When the force is large enough, the crust is forced to break. When the break occurs, the stress is released as energy, which moves through the Earth in the form of waves, which we feel and call an earthquake.
- 4. The Epicenter is the point on the Earths surface i.e. directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates. In the case of earthquakes, the epicenter is directly above the point where the fault begins to rupture, and in most cases, it is the area of greatest damage.
- 5. A fault is an area of stress in the earth where broken rocks slide past each other, causing a crack in the Earth's surface.
- 6. There are 4 major types of faults which are as follows: : Dip Slip Normal Fault. Dip-Slip Reverse Fault Strike Slip Fault Oblique Slip Fault
- 7. Dip Slip Normal Fault Dip-slip faults can occur either as "reverse" or as "normal" faults. A normal fault occurs when the crust is extended. Alternatively such a fault can be called an extensional fault.. The hanging wall moves downward, relative to the footwall.
- 8. Dip-Slip Reverse Fault A reverse fault is the opposite of a normal fault the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall.
- 9. Strike Slip Fault The fault surface is usually near vertical and the footwall moves either left or right or laterally with very little vertical motion. Strike-slip faults with left-lateral motion are also known as sinistral faults. Those with right-lateral motion are also known as dextral faults
- 10. Oblique Slip Fault A fault which has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is termed an oblique-slip fault. So, defining a fault as oblique requires both dip and strike components to be measurable and significant.
- 11. The plate tectonic theory is supported by a wide range of evidence that considers the earth's crust and upper mantle to be composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another.
- 12. A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and duration of an earthquake.
- 13. The Richter magnitude scale (also Richter scale) assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an Earthquake. It is based on the amplitude of largest seismic waves.
- 14. What is landslides ? Introduction Common types of landslides Causes of landslides Effects and losses due to landslides
- 15. A landslide is a downward or outward movement of soil, rock or vegetation, under the influence of gravity.
- 16. Factor of Safety(F); F = Resisting Force(R) Driving Force(D) When, F< 1 = landslide occur Resisting forces(R) preventing the mass from sliding down the slope are inversely proportional to the same hill slope angle and directly proportional to the friction angle of the material.
- 17. In addition, the resisting forces can be significantly reduced in case of rain or earthquake vibrations. Three distinct physical events occur during a landslide: the initial slope failure, the subsequent transport, and the final deposition of the slide materials. Types of landslide:
- 18. The speed of the movement may range from very slow to rapid. The speed of the landslide will make an even more or less avoidable and therefore, more or less risky. It is important to distinguish the different types of landslides to be able to understand how to deal with each of them.
- 19. a) Rotational slides move along a surface of rupture that is curved and concave. b) Translational slides occurs when the failure surface is approximately flat or slightly undulated
- 20. c) Rock Fall Free falling of detached bodies of bedrock (boulders) from a cliff or steep slope d) Rock toppling occurs when one or more rock units rotate about their base and Collapse.
- 21. e) Lateral spreading occurs when the soil mass spreads laterally and this spreading comes with tensional cracks in the soil mass. f ) Debris Flow Down slope movement of collapsed, unconsolidated material typically along a stream channel.
- 22. A) Natural Factors: Gravity: Gravity works more effectively on steeper slopes. Geological factors: Geology setting that places permeable sands and gravels above impermeable layers of silt and clay or bedrock. Heavy and prolonged rainfall: slides occur often with intense rain by creating zone of weakness, also water tables rise with heavy rain makes some slopes unstable. Earthquakes: Ground vibrations created during Earthquakes.
- 23. Waves: Wave action can erode the beach or the toe of a bluff, cutting into the slope, and setting the stage for future slides. Volcanoes: volcanic ash deposits (sometimes called as lahars deposits) are prone to erosion and subjected to mud flows due to intense rainfall. Fluctuation of water levels due to the tidal action. Deposition of loose sediments in delta areas.
- 24. B) Anthropogenic Factors: Inappropriate drainage system: Surface runoff of irrigated water on slopes exposes soil under cultivation to erosion. Part of this water is absorbed by soil increasing its weight, which can put an additional load on the slope. Cutting & deep excavations on slopes for buildings, roads, canals & mining: causes modification of natural slopes, blocking of surface drainage, loading of critical slopes and withdrawal to toe support promoting vulnerability of critical slopes.
- 25. A) Direct Effects Physical Damage-Debris may block roads, supply lines (telecommunication, electricity, water, etc.) and waterways. Causalities- deaths and injuries to people and animals. B) Indirect Effects Influence of landslides in dam safety- failure of the slopes bordering the reservoir, Floodi
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