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  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

    Peter Sammonds

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

    Course detailsGH07 MSc Geophysical HazardsGEOLGG09 MSc Geoscience / Earthquake

    EngineeringGEOL4002 MSci Geophysics etc.M (masters) level course

    7.5-10 ECTS (PG) Half course unit (UG)

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake HazardCourse organiserPeter Sammonds Professor of Geophysics Department of Earth SciencesOffice: Pearson Building, 2nd

    Email: p.sammonds@ucl.ac.ukCourse website: www.es.ucl.ac.uk/people/sammonds/

    Other contributorsAlan Douglas Blacknest Observatory 1 dayTim Wright COMET, Leeds University 1 day Tiziana Rossetto Civil Engineering, UCL 1 lectureClare Matthews Earth Sciences, UCL PG teacherJoanna Faure Walker Earth Sciences, UCL PG teacher

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake HazardWorkloada) 20 Lectures 20 hrsb) 6 Self-guided tutorials 18 hrsc) 3 Analytical/computing practicals 16 hrs d) Study visit to seismological observatory 6 hrse) Earthquake hazard exercise 6 hrse) Private reading 40-50 hrsf) Practical write ups 18-27 hrsg) Revision 30 hrs

    Total: 150-170 hrs

    AssessmentWritten examination: 80% 2 hrs 30 minsCoursework: 20% 2/3 Practical write-upsBoth examination and coursework must be passed

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Times & venuesMonday 1.00pm to 6.00pmWk1: Starting Monday 1st OctoberLectures & Practicals: 188 Tottenham Court Road, Room SB5

    Computer practicals: Computer Terminal Room, 2nd flr South Wing (PIN: 25334) & Lewis Workroom, Basement Lewis

    Earthquake Hazard Exercise

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Blacknest trip

    Compulsory exercises at BlacknestWednesday / Thursday 7th/8th November10.00 LectureHalf day visit depart 11.30 am Paddington

    Professor Alan DouglasBlacknest Seismological ObservatoryMoD, AWE Aldermaston

    www.blacknest.gov.uk/

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Course outline

    Observational SeismologyEarthquake Waves & SeismogramsIASPEI Seismology HandbookVisit to Blacknest Observatory

    Earthquake Source MechanicsSeismic Moment & SeismotectonicsEarthquake magnitude & intensitySeismometer

    Theoretical SeismologySignal Processing Tutorial

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Tectonics

    Strain-Stress Tensors

    State of Stress in the Crust

    Earth Materials

    Satellite Remote Sensing

    Earthquake cycle deformation

    Interpreting interferograms

    Earthquake Hazard Exercise

    Earthquake engineering

    Earthquake Recurrence

    Earthquake Statistics

    Realistic Disaster Scenarios

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard1. Propagation of seismic waves

    Observational seismology

    How to interpret a seismogram:-

    analyse both old ink trace and modern digital records

    analysing earth structure

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard2. Earthquake source mechanics

    Seismotectonics

    Determining the earthquake focal mechanism:-

    using Matlab

    Seismotectonics:-

    earthquake hazard assessment

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard3. Propagation of seismic waves

    Theoretical seismology

    Understand elastodynamicequation:-

    solutions to it tell us about the earthquake source, seismotectonics, earth structure, ground motion

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  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Earthquake Seismology & Earthquake Hazard4. Earthquake faulting

    Analysis of strain & stress

    Observed interferogramcalculated from ERS-1 SAR images taken before and after the Izmit Earthquake

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    5. Earthquake source mechanics Earthquake models and scaling

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

    Friction and fluid flow models of earthquakes:-

    Slip weakening model

    Rate and state models

    Fractal scalingCoulomb stress model

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    5. Earthquake designGround motion & damageSocial & economic impact

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

    Ground motion from wave equation

    Tsunami

    Shake maps

    Soils and structures

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    6. Forecasting earthquakesEarthquake statistics

    Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard

    Poisson statistics

    Non-Poissonian statistics

    Extremal statistics

    Hazard maps: practical hazard assessment

    Approaches to forecasting and warning

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923 Great Kanto earthquake (Mw = 7.9; Ms = 8.2) Occurred along the Sagami Trough in the Sagami Bay on 1 September 1923 One of the most disastrous earthquakes in Japanese history

    Earthquake claimed 99,331 dead, 43,746 missing, and left 3.4 million homeless

    Major social consequences - systematic massacre of 6,000 Koreans & political assassinations

    Refugees Imperial Palace

    Saiten Tamura

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923

    JMA Intensities

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923

    Ratio of total collapse of wooden houses

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923

    Tsunami damage Yuigahama Beach

    Tsunami height reached 12 m at Atami in Shizuoka Prefecture and 9.3 m at Aihama on the Boso Peninsula

    The tsunami struck Atami, located close to the focal region, about 5 minutes after the earthquake occurred

    Hence the tsunami was not triggered directly by the earthquake itself, but a subsequent submarine landslide

    There was no large tsunami wave inside Tokyo Bay

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923

    Lloyds realistic disaster scenariosUSA Windstorm, Marine Collision in Prince William Sound, North Sea- Loss of Major Complex, Aviation Collision, Satellite Risks, Political Risks, Liability Risks

    Compulsory ScenariosSecond Event, Florida Windstorm, California Earthquake, New Madrid Earthquake, European Windstorm, Japanese Earthquake, Terrorism

    Objective is for syndicates to estimate losses in a variety of hypothetical disaster scenarios

    Wanted me to assess how realistic this scenarios was and the impacts, including a tsunami assessment

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Great Kanto Earthquake 1923

    JMA Intensities: Maximum is 7

    Lloyds RDS: is it realistic?

  • GEOLGH7/GG09/4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD

    Reading listRecommended TextsShearer P M (1999) Introduction to Seismology, C.U.P.

    Bolt B A (2003) Earthquake 5th edition, W H Freeman & Co., New York

    Woo G (1999) The Mathematics of Natural Catastrophes, Imperial College PressAn advanced text from an unusual viewpoint, directed towards the insurance industry.

    Fowler C M R (2005) The Solid Earth 2nd edition, Cambridge University PressA general introductory geophysics text

    Vita-Finzi C (2002) Monitoring the Earth, TerraReadable account of active tectonics

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