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Comprehensive run through of tectonic topics


  • 1. Earth Shakes, Rattles, and Rolls Plate TectonicsVolcanoesEarthquakes

2. What is the relationship between the earths plates, volcanoes, and earthquakes? 3. http://www. extremescience .com/ PlateTectonicsmap . htm Plates 4. Earthquakes 5. Volcanoes 6. Lets look at those maps again. 7. Plates Earthquakes Volcanoes 8. Earthquakes and Volcanoes are found where plates meet. 9. Evidence Wegener used to support theory of continental drift:

  • Continents fit like a puzzle
  • Fossil evidence
  • Rocks were similar in Africa and South America
  • Evidence Antarctica once had a tropical climate

10. How did geologists explain how the earths plates moved? Mid-Atlantic Ridge allows mantle to seep to surface through cracks and pushes plates of the earth apart.Continental Drift 11. Seafloor spreading animation To see how geologists believe the plates moved go to the site below . Notice the Atlantic Ocean seafloor spreading. 12. Layers of the Earth

  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Outer core
  • Inner core

13. Types of Mountains

  • Folded
  • Fault-block
  • Volcanic
  • Unwarped


  • Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, and the Swiss Alps in Switzerland
  • form when two plates collide head on, and their edges crumble
  • consist mainly of sedimentary rocks, like limestone and shale


  • Consist of huge blocks of the earth's crust that have been tilted or pushed up along a fracture line called a fault
  • Sierra in California, Arizonais an example.
  • Created when a plate hits a fault and tips upside down, creating erosion and debris, which is at the base of the mountain.


  • Formed when molten rock, or magma deep within the earth, erupts, and piles upon the surface
  • Made of basalt and rhyolite.
  • Takes place where two of the earth's tectonic plates collide.


  • Black Hills in South Dakota
  • form when tectonic forces lift the earth's crust into a broadbulge or dome raising it above its surroundings
  • Erosion causespeaks and valleys to form.

21. 22. Convection currents in action! At left, two animal cookies represent two of the Earth's tectonic plates. At right, the two plates have moved apart, much like what happens at a divergent margin. The chocolate pudding represents the Earth's mantle. The heat source beneath the pot created convection cells in the chocolate pudding. Think of the cookie on the left as South America, and the cookie on the right as Africa. Over time they have moved apart. You'll see this again. 23. Convection currents in the Earth's mantle are what drive plate motions. Convection currents are driven by the simple fact that hot things (such as gases and liquids) rise while cool things fall. 24. Convection currents in the magma move the earths crust. 25. epicenter The point on the surface of Earth that is right above the focus of an earthquake 26. 27. savageearth /animations/earthquakes/ Go to this site to see an animation of the path of p waves and s waves 28. Earthquakes How do we measure the intensity of an earthquake? 29. Seismograph measures Magnitude or the strength of an earthquake 30. Seismograph records energy waves of the earth 31.

  • V.
  • People feel movement.
  • Doors open
  • Pictures fall off wall.
  • VII.
  • Some buildings lose bricks.
  • Difficulty driving.

IX.Considerable damage to homes.Cracks in earth.

  • XII.
  • Almost everything is destroyed.
  • The ground moves in waves or ripples.

Mercalli Scale I.People do not feel anything . 32. Richter Scale

  • Earthquake MagnitudesEffects
  • Less than 3.5 Generally not felt
  • 3.5-5.4 Rarely causes damage.
  • Under 6.0Slight damage to well-designed buildings.
  • 6.1-6.9 Destructive to about 100 kilometers across
  • 7.0-7.9Major earthquake. Serious damage over larger areas.
  • 8 or greaterGreat earthquake.

33. Each number is 10X stronger than the previous number .How much stronger is the 3 than the 1? 100 Times How much stronger is the 8 than the 1? 10,000,000 Write the number in scientific notation.10 6 34. Why is the Richter Scale more accurate than the Mercalli Scale?

  • TheRichter Scaleisobjectiveandbased onmathematical measurements .
  • TheMercalli scaleissubjectiveand basedon peoples perception and experience .
  • OnMercalli scaleif the area is unihabited there is no way to measure the magnitude of the earthquake.

35. Richter Magnitude Number of Earthquakes per year1.0 to 3.9 900,000 + 4.0-4.9 6200 5.0-5.9 800 6.0-6.9 226 7.0-7.9 18 8.0-8.9 Less than 2 36. http://www. olympus .net/personal/ gofamily /quake/famous/1906.html One Boys Experience Eyewitness AccountVirtual Museum of the City of San Francisco Jack LondonsEyewitness Account of San Franciso Earthquake http:// sunsite . berkeley . edu /London/Writings/Journalism/ sfearthquake .html language arts connection primary source Click on url to get complete texts 37. San Francisco Earthquake 1906 38. Alaska Earthquake 1964 39. Earthquakes in the ocean cause Tsunamis 40. Destruction 30 Wall of Water Tsunamis 41. Types of Volcanos

  • Composite
  • Cinder Cone
  • Shield


  • have small craters in their summits
  • Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Fujiyama, and Mount St. Helens
  • tens of miles across and ten thousand or more feet in height.


  • consist almost entirely of loose, grainy cinders and almost no lava
  • steep sides and usually have a small crater on top
  • small volcanoes


  • hundreds of miles across and many tens of thousands of feet high.
  • Mauna Loa
  • consist almost entirely of frozen lavas
  • large craters at their summits.


  • largest single mountain in the world
  • 30,000 +feet above the ocean floor
  • 100 miles across at its base.

46. http://www. enchantedlearning .com/subjects/volcano/ labelvolcano . shtml Image Resources For additional diagrams of volcanoes click below: