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  • Earth Science8th Grade OAT Review

  • 7th 1. Explain the Biogeochemical cycles which move materials between the lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water) and atmosphere (air)A. Water is always moving between the atmosphere and Earths surfaceB. Water can contain minerals, pollutants, and other agents depending on the land, runoff and chemicals in the airC. The movement of water between the atmosphere and Earths surface is called the water cycleWater vapor enters the air by evaporation from the oceans and other bodies of waterWater vapor is also added to the air by living things - this process is called transpirationSome of the water vapor the atmosphere condenses to form clouds - this is called condensationRain and other forms of precipitation fall from the clouds toward the surfaceThe water then runs off the surface, or moves through the ground, back into the oceans lakes and streams

  • 7th 2. Explain the Earths capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally (e.g. smoke, smog, sewage) can change the environmental quality depending on the length of time involved (e.g. global warming)A. Most changes in the world climate are caused by natural factors. In the last 100 years, however, human activities have also had an effect on Earths climate and atmosphereB. Pollution (smog, smoke, sewage, increased carbon dioxide, etc.) and can produce harmful, possibly long term effects to the Earth.C. Two of the most important worldwide issues are global warming and thinning of the atmosphereGreenhouse effects is essential to the extent that it is a natural process that keeps Earths atmosphere at a temperature that is comfortable for most living things Gases that trap solar energy are called greenhouse gases - water vapor, carbon dioxide, methaneHuman activities that add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere may be warming Earths atmosphere (burning wood, coal, oil and natural gas)Increased carbon dioxide traps more heat, the result is global warming

  • 7th 2. ContinuedD. Ozone in the stratosphere filters out much of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.Chemicals produced by humans have been damaging the ozone layer The main cause of ozone depletion is a group of compounds called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)CFCs are found in spray cans, refrigerators, and air conditioners and can last for years in the atmosphere and can rise all the way to the stratosphereCFCs are broken down by the ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere forming chlorine. The chlorine atoms break the ozone into oxygen atoms

  • 7th Earth 3. Describe the water cycle and explain the transfer of energy between the atmosphere and the hydrosphereA. The movement of water between the atmosphere and the Earths surface is called the water cycleWater vapor enters the air by evaporation from the oceans and other bodies of waterWater vapor is also added to the air b living things - this process is called transpirationSome of the water vapor the atmosphere condenses to form a cloud - this process is called condensationRain and other forms of precipitation fall from the clouds toward the surfaceThe water then runs off the surface, or moves through the ground, back into the ocean, lakes and streamsEvaporation uses energy (sunlight and heat)Condensation releases energy (thunderstorms/ hurricanes)Energy can not be created or destroyed, it is just transferred from one form to anotherEnergy from the sun drives the water cycle

  • 7th Earth 4. Analyze data on the availability of fresh water that is essential for life and for most industrial and agricultural processes. Describe how rivers lakes and ground water can be depleted or polluted becoming less hospitable to life and even becoming unavailable or unsuitable for lifeA. Most of the Earths water - more than 97% is salt water, only 3% is fresh water3/4 of the 3% of fresh water is found in ice masses at the North and South PoleLess than 1% of the water on Earth is fresh water available for humans to use. Usable fresh water is only found in lakes and rivers and shallow ground water (aquifers)B. Water is used for most agricultural processes and in industryOn the farms a constant supply of fresh water is essentialSome parts of the U.S. do not receive enough annual rainfall to produce crops therefore irrigation is usedWater is a major component used in the manufacturing of most products in your classroom (e.g., paper, and textbooks)Industries also use water to cool machinery (e.g., power plants and steel)

  • 7th Earth 4. ContinuedC. Water Pollution is the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or living things that depend on waterMajor sources of water pollution are human wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals and wastes, runoff from roadsMany kinds of water pollution are so difficult to clean up, the most important place to stop pollution is at the sourceGround water is difficult to clean - pollution can cling to rock particles of the aquiferD. Droughts and overuse can deplete ground waterIt takes a long time for surface water to percolate through the ground and replace the water that was used

  • 7th Earth 5. Make simple weather predictions based on the changing cloud types associated with frontal systemsA. Meteorologists classify clouds into three man typesCumulus - looks like fluffy rounded piles of cottonUsually indicate fair weatherTowering cumulus clouds with flat tops, cumulonimbus (usually form at cold fronts), often produce thunderstormsStratus - form in flat layersCover all or most of the skyAs they thicken may produce drizzle, rain, or snow (nimbostratus)Cirrus - wispy, feathery cloudsOnly form at high levels where temps. Are very lowMostly made of ice crystalsOften predict precipitation within 24 hoursUsually form at the leading edge of warm frontsDarker clouds contain more moistureB. Clouds that form near the ground are known as fogForms after the ground cools at night after a warm humid day

  • 7th Earth 5. ContinuedC. front - four typesCold Front - boundary between a cold air mass and a warm air massBrings brief storms and cooler weatherWarm Front - boundary between a warm air mass and a cold air massUsually accompanied by precipitationStationary Front - boundary between a warm air mass and cold air mass when no movement occursBrings long periods of precipitationOccluded Front - boundary on which a warm front has been overtaken by a cold frontBrings precipitation

  • 7th Earth 6. Determine how weather observations and measurements are combined to produce weather maps and that data for a specific location at one point in time can be displayed in a station modelA. A weather map is a snap shot of conditions over a large area for a particular time periodData is collected from weather stations all over a large area for a particular time periodLocal weather maps provide data for a specific locations and elements of weather

  • 7th Earth 7. Read a weather map to interpret local, regional, and national weatherA. A weather map is a snap shot of conditions over a large area for a particular time periodB. On some weather maps you see curved linesLines that connect places on the map that have the same air pressure are called isobarsAir pressure readings are given in inches of mercury, or in millibars, or bothIsotherms are lines joining places that have the same temperatureThese are labeled with temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celcius, or bothC. Standard symbols on weather maps show fronts, areas of high and low pressure, types of precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover, and temperatures

  • 7th Earth 8. Describe how temperature and precipitation determine climatic zones (biomes) (e.g. desert, grassland, forest, tundra, alpine)A. Climate zones are geographic areas that cover major parts of the earth and share similar climates (temperature and precipitation)B. The major terrestrial (land) biomes are desert, grassland, forests, tundra and aplineNot all scientists agree on the number and names of the biomesDesert -receive less than 25cm of rainfall per yearThe amount of evaporation is greater than the precipitationTemperature in the desert varies depending on the time of daySome deserts experience freezing temperatures in the winterGrasslands - receive between 25cm to 75cm of rainfal annuallyThis is more rainfall than a desert but still not enough for many trees to growA savanna is a grassland located close to the equator that receives as much as 120cm of rainfall annually

  • 7th Earth 8. ContinuedForests - three kinds of forest biomes include rain forest, deciduous, and coniferousRain forestsTropical rain forest - receives 212cm of rainfall annuallyWarm temperatures do not vary and sunlight is fairly constantTemperate rain forest - receives over 300cm of rainfall per annuallyTemperature is moderate to coolDeciduous forest - receive at least 50cm of rainfall annuallyTemperatures vary (spring, summer, fall, winter)Coniferous forest - receive large amounts of snowfallColder climate - winters are very coldTundra - receives 25cm or less of rain or snow annuallyReceives the least amount of sunlight of any of the biomesAlpine - include mountain ranges and land that is covered with thick sheets of ice Very cold temperatures, precipitation as snow (e.g. peaks of mountains)

  • 7th Earth 9. Describe the connection between the water cycle and weather related phenomenon (e.g. tornadoes, droughts, floods, hurricanes)A. A storm (e.g. tornadoes, hurricanes) is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere that can disrupt the water cycleA tornado forms in a cumulonimbus cloud (same cloud as thunderstorms) Occurs in spring in summer due to the humid (evaporation) warm air masses coming from the southA hurricane receives energy from warm humid air at the ocean surfaceAs