Early Renaissance Art in Italy

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  • 1.Early Renaissance in Italy(1400s / 15thCentury)

2. An explosion of creativity and learning inEurope in the 15thand 16thCenturies. 3. Historical Reasons for Renaissance People were ready for change after 14thCenturyWars, the plague, and social upheaval Change in Political power the new monarchsexerted and expanded their authority, includingspending money on art Emerging capitalism trade, new credit, andexchange systems created a network of enterprisingEuropean cities The Pope makes Rome him home again 4. The birthplace of the Renaissance was ItalyThe Renaissance quickly spread to other parts ofEurope. 5. HumanismRevival of classical learning and literature (interestin Ancient Greek and Roman cultures)Focus on Human Beings education that perfected humans through thestudy of past models of civic and personal virtue value system that emphasized personal effortand responsibility physically and intellectually active life that wasdirected at a common good as well as individualnobility 6. Renaissance art influenced byAncient Greek and Roman ArtAncient GreekSculptureRenaissanceSculpture 7. Nude figures Renaissance artists often depictednude figures The beauty of the human body Based on Classical Greek Art No shame in showing nude humanfigure (freedom of expression) 8. Donatello, David,1432, Bronzesculpture, 52.Florence, Italy Donatello studied ancientsculpture in Rome David is a character from theBible. In the story, he fights thegiant (Goliath) and wins First life-sized nude sculpturesince Ancient Greek and Romantimes (Nude wasnt shown inMiddle Ages consideredindecent) Tribute to male beauty Contrapposto the way hesstanding 9. The main subject matter in Renaissance Art wasReligion. The main religion in Europe at that timewas Christianity. Art included depictions of storiesfrom the Bible, stories about the life of Christ andthe Holy Family, etc. 10. Composition during the Renaissance(Composition is the organization of the elements to forma unified whole in an artwork)Renaissance artists carefully planned their artworks,making many sketches and plans in advance of thefinal work 11. Shapes wereused as a wayto organize acompositionThe triangle shapeis symbolic inChrisitianityThe holy trinity 12. Engraving, a printmaking technique wasinvented in 15thCenturyThe process involves using a tool to carvelines into a metal or wood plate, adding ink,and printing copies from the plate 13. Antonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465,Engraving 14. Visual MovementHatching Technique ofusing a series of parallellines to create the imageHatching was used in Italianstyle engravingAntonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of theTen Nudes 15. Fresco PaintingWall paintings / Part of the architecturePopular Medium in Italy in RenaissanceFresco means Fresh in Italian, the word refers tothe processBuon Fresco (True Fresh) technique of paintingon wet plaster where you have to work quickly 16. Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam andEve from Eden, 1425, Fresco 17. Masaccio, Expulsion ofAdam and Eve fromEdenAdam and Eve (first man andwoman according to the Bible)stumble blindly led by angelExpulsion forced to leaveEden ParadiseFeeling of Despair / Deep SadnessStrong Light and ShadowSimple Composition with eloquentmessage 18. Fra Angelico, Annunciation, 1440 1445, Fresco 19. Painted by a monkSeries of Paintings of stories ina Monastery in ItalyAnnunciation is the story ofangel Gabriel telling the VirginMary that she will have a baby(Jesus)Frescos illustrate a 13thCentury TextSimple and Humble CharacterFra Angelico, Annunciation 20. PerspectiveDepicting the illusion of three-dimensionalspace on a flat 2-D surfaceRenaissance artists discovered ways to showspace that looked more real (one and two-pointperspective) 21. Andrea Mantegna, Dead Christ, 1501, Temperaon Canvas 22. Andrea Mantegna, Dead ChristPerspective /Foreshortening of the humanfigureSize of feet reduced to looksmallerOverwhelming emotionTwo mourning figures on theleft added later by MantegnasstudentsMantegnas style and sense ofhuman emotion influencedother artists 23. Masaccio, Holy Trinity,1428, Fresco 24. Masaccio, Holy TrinityMasaccio leading innovator in 15thCentury ArtPainting based on Observation(looking at real humans as a model)Calm monumental stylePerspective looking up andlooking down at tomb of ChristVirgin Mary on the left, St. John onRight, portraits of patrons kneelingon left and right (patron = personwho gives money for art) 25. Classical Greek and Roman Themesin Renaissance Art 26. Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1482, Tempera on Canvas 27. Botticelli, Birth of VenusVenus Roman Goddess of Love and BeautyZephyrus God of Wind with his lover, ChlorisPomona Nymph greeting Venus with a robe Painting inspired by a poem by Angelo Poliziano, an ItalianHumanist Commissioned by the Medici for the Medici family, a powerfulwealthy Italian family From a series of paintings based on Classical themes 28. Italian RenaissanceArchitecture 29. Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral,1420 1436 (Florence, Italy) 30. Brunelleschi, Dome of FlorenceCathedralBruneslleschi designed thedome the building stoodunfinished for almost 100 yearsHe devised new buildingmethods and invented newmachinery for architectureProblem was the huge span(140 feet wide)Brunelleschi made the dometaller and created a pointeddome / used a thin shell tosupport the weight 31. Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice ofIsaac, 1401 1402, GildedBronze relief 32. Lorenzo Ghiberti,Sacrifice of IsaacRelief sculpture figuresprotruding from a flat backgroundSpatial IllusionWon a Design Competition todesign the east doors of FlorenceBaptistry (Part of FlorenceCathedral)Ghiberti designed 28 door panels,depicting scenes from The OldTestament of the Bible