early greece. minoans minoans (2000-1400 bc) island of crete: knossos sir arthur evans (1898-1935) ~...
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Early Greece Minoans Minoans ( BC) Island of Crete: Knossos Sir Arthur Evans ( ) ~ Excavations Knossos 706,000 sq feet 5,000 inhabitants Social, political, economic, religious center. Plumbing/No Defensive Walls Mycenaeans Myceneans ( BC) Mainland Greece Defeat Minoans: 1400s (Era of dominance: BC) - Warrior Kings (20 ft. thick walls) Defeated by the Dorians 1200 BC Trojan War: 1100 BC Homer: Iliad & Odyssey Epic Poet or Historian? Dorians Dorians Dark Ages ( BC) Little is known in archaeological records. NO trade NO written communication Little Technology Formation of City-States Polis A city-state of ancient Greece. Acropolis A walled, high area surrounding a polis. Agora An open area that served as a meeting place and market. The Classical Age of Greece Golden Age of Athens, Persian Wars, and the Peloponnesian War ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY Solon Revised laws. Outlawed debt slavery and tried to reduce poverty by encouraging trade. Cleisthenes Divided Athens into 10 tribes that became the basis for elections. (Credited for creating Democracy) Democracy?Really? Women, children, immigrants, slaves could NOT particpate. 10% of population participated. Athens used a Direct Democracy where people voted directly on issues. Why not used in United States? Persian Wars First Persian Invasion Marathon (Phalanx) Athens beats Persia (Darius). Second Persian Invasion Thermopylae Small Greek force held back large Persian force for 3 days. (Xerxes) Salamis (Naval Battle) Persia lost and were stuck in Greece. Greece Wins Persian Wars! Golden Age of Athens Athens & Delian League Alliance of Greek city-states that was controlled by Athens. Parthenon was built from $ from Delian League. Pericles Skilled politician who encouraged the spreading of democracy. Commissioned the building of the Parthenon. ACROPOLIS PARTHENON TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE ERECTHEION Age of Alexander Philip II, & the Rise and Fall of Alexander the Great, Hellenism Philip II of Macedonia Macedonians thought of themselves as Greeks, but Greeks saw them as inferior. Philip II Phalanx 16 x 16 (18 ft. pikes) Calvalry Demosthenes Gave warning to the Greeks, but to no avail. Philip defeats Greece at Chaeronea and then wants to take on Persia. But he is assassinated. What makes a great leader? You are to get into groups of 3-4 students. Come up with 5 traits and list them in order of importance. 1 Being the most important. You must come to an agreement as a group. You have 10 minutes to make your list. Alexander Defeats Persia Philips son Alexander proclaims himself king of Macedonia. Becomes known as Alexander the Great (13 years many accomplishments). Alexander vs. Persian King Darius III Peace offer by Darius. Ambitious Alexander declines. Darius & his army flees after defeat. Alexander turns to Egypt (Persian territory). Welcomed as a liberator & crowned pharaoh. Alexander Defeats Persia & More Alexander turns to Mesopotamia to confront Darius. Battle at Gaugamela. Darius again panicked and fled. Opened up Persias wealthiest provinces to Alexander. Distributed wealth among his troops. Alexander continues into Persias Asian provinces to confront Darius. Darius was already dead. Assassinated by one of his own. Indus River Valley Won a fierce battle (200 elephants). Alexander & His Legacy Alexanders Army marched 11,000 miles and fought for 11 years. Alexander was to return home to organize and unify his empire. (Roads, New Cities, Harbors). Alexanders Legacy Generals Fight for Control Antigonus (King of Macedonia) Ptolemy (Pharaoh of Egypt) Seleucus (Persian Empire) Hellenistic Culture Blending of cultures. Egyptian Persian Greek Indian Pergamum: A Hellenistic City