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Early Detection of Aquatic Invasive Species Using eDNA Technology

Maggie Kronlein

PIs: Drs. Syed Hashsham, Jo Latimore, Erin Dreelin, and R. Jan StevensonMichigan State University

11/4/14

What is environmental DNA?

DNA released into the environment by an organism by: Scraped-off tissue cells Feces or excrements Fish slime Reproduction: Eggs, veligers, juvenilles, larva, etc. Cells released after organism death/decay Free-floating DNA released from any cell lysis

eDNA can be used for: Validating presence or absence of an organism in an area Creating distribution maps to determine how wide-spread the

invasion is Confirming results obtained via sightings

Why eDNA for detecting invaders?

Below: Data from Hayes et al 2005depicting the cost and 95% sensitivity ofvarious green mussel identification methods

Above: Data from Darling &Mahon 2011 depicting theincreased likelihood ofdetection for lower targetdensities via DNA-basedmethods over traditionmethods

1. Sensitivity2. Cost

Project Overview

eDNA-based monitoring

Community-based sampling

Smart phone-based reporting

Target Species

Golden Mussel

[http://biolo.bg.fcen.uba.ar/primerapagina.htm]

Northern Snakehead

[Michael Grabowski]

Killer Shrimp

[natureofnature.tumblr.com]

[www.sms.si.edu]

Hydrilla

Daphnia cristata

Fishhook Water Flea

[Medinis Biologi]

[shopboblake.blogspot.com]

Gene-ZTM for detecting eDNA

Decentralized detection of gene targets in a field

setting!

Gene-Z uses microfluidic chips that allow easy dispensing

of samples into reaction wells.

Preliminary eDNA results

Zebra Mussel primer sets in 1 l lake water samples

Minimal/ no sample processing is required at high abundances!

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

High Infestation1-2 Log

DNA Precipitation(optional)

3-4 LogCell Lysis

95C+ Pestle

2-5 LogPlankton Net Concentrate

Leve

l of

Infe

stat

ion

We are here!

Low Infestation

Sample Concentration

DNA Extraction

to ~50 l

(lab)

Filtration on

0.45 m

membrane

(lab)

DNA

Amplification

(lab)

Cells lysed

with pestle

+ Heating to

95C(field)

Filtration

of 500- 5070,000 L

to 1 L (field)

DNA

Amplification

(field)

Collection of 1 L

Lake Water

(field)

PlanktonTow and Hand Filters

Traditional Approach

1.5 hr

2-5 Log 3-4 Log

4 Log

~8 hr

Sample Concentration

Sampled locations

Some invasive mussel results

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Lake Lansing, MI7/16/1370,000 L Filtered

Zebra

GoldenQuagga

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Round Lake, Victor, MI7/16/1320 L Filtered

ZebraQuaggaGolden

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Lake Michigan, Holland, MI7/14/1320 L Filtered

Quagga

ZebraGolden

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0 20 40 60

Crystal Lake, Crystal, MI7/7/1312 L Filtered

Zebra

Quagga Golden

The Sampling Kit

One 1 Liter Filtration Bottle

One 1 Liter water sample bottle

One Sampling Information Sheet

One Sampling Protocol Sheet

One 50 mL Tube

One Shipping Box with Prepaid

Postage and Mailing Address

Just place samples in freezer overnight, then ship back the next day!

Samples are tested for:

Potential Invasive Species Golden Mussel Northern Snakehead Hydrilla

Daphnia cristata Killer Shrimp

Present Invasive Species Spiny Waterflea Fishhook Waterflea Sea Lamprey

Round Goby Zebra Mussel Quagga Mussel Rusty Crayfish Asian Clam New Zealand Mudsnail Rock Snot Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

Emailed results!

General Information

Sample Submitted By: John Smith

Lake Name: Lake Lansing

Sample Collected at: Lake Lansing Park SouthMeridian Township, MI

Sampling Date: 10/1/2013

Sample Types Submitted: 1 Bottles of Pure Lake Water1 50 mL tube with Filtrate

Sample Analyzed by: Maggie Kronlein

Analysis Date: 10/3/13

Emailed results!

Invasive Species Results

Common Name Scientific Name Present/Absent

Golden Mussel Limnoperna fortunei Not Detected

Northern Snakehead Channa argus Not Detected

Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata Not Detected

Daphnia Daphnia cristata Not Detected

Killer Shrimp Dikerogammarus villosus Not Detected

Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha Detected

Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis Not Detected

Fishhook Waterflea Cercopagis pengoi Not Detected

Spiny Waterflea Bythotrephes longimanus Not Detected

Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus Not Detected

Round Goby Neogobius melanostomas Not Detected

Rusty Crayfish Orconectes rusticus Not Detected

Input eDNA results into the iSAW database for public access

Results can assist in management / screening Should we be on the lookout for invaders in the first place?

Allow for the validation of field sampling studies

Help determine a level of infestation (Low, Moderate, High)

Determine the distribution of invaders in an area

Early detection is crucial to successful eradication!

What comes after a positive test?

iSAW for results and reporting

Almost Ready!

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (EPA GLRI)

Grant Number: GL-00E01127-0

Special Thanks to the eDNA Team:Dr. Robert Stedtfeld, Cathrine Kronlein, Tiffany Stedtfeld, and Michael Stevens.

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