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  • Dynamic Historical Analysis of Longer Term Migratory, Labour

    Market and Human Capital Processes in Hungary

    Irén GÖDRI Demographic Research Institute at the HCSO

    Béla SOLTÉSZ

    Demographic Research Institute at the HCSO

    Boróka BODACZ-NAGY

    Demographic Research Institute at the HCSO

    Local case study:

    Katalin FÜZÉR, Melinda MARTON

    Municipality of Pécs

    NKI

    N É

    P E

    S S

    É G

    T U

    D O

    M Á

    N Y

    I K U T A T Ó I N T É Z E T

    R E

    S E

    A R

    C H

    I N

    S T

    IT U

    T E

    D E M O G R A P H I C

    2013

  • Dynamic Historical Analysis – Country Report Hungary

    2

    This country report was developed in the framework of SEEMIG – Managing Migration and

    its Effects in SEE – Transnational Actions towards Evidence-based Strategies. SEEMIG is a

    strategic project funded by the European Union’s South-East Europe Programme. Project

    code: SEEMIG - SEE/C/0006/4.1/X

    The country report was prepared within the SEEMIG activity Conceptual framework for

    modelling longer term migratory, labour market and human capital processes coordinated

    by the University of Vienna.

    The information published here reflects the authors’ views and the Managing Authority is

    not liable for any use that may be made of the information concerned.

    © Gödri, Irén – Soltész, Béla – Bodacz-Nagy, Boróka All Rights Reserved. Information for reproducing excerpts from this report can be found at www.seemig.eu. Inquiries can also be directed to: University of Vienna, Dept. of Geography and Regional Research, Universitaetsstrasse 7/5, A-1010 Vienna or by contacting seemig.geographie@univie.ac.at.

    Suggested citation: Gödri, Irén – Soltész, Béla – Bodacz-Nagy, Boróka (2013): Dynamic Historical Analysis of Longer Term Migratory, Labour Market and Human Capital Processes in Hungary. Country report developed within the project ‘SEEMIG Managing Migration and Its Effects – Transnational Actions Towards Evidence Based Strategies’. http://www.seemig.eu/downloads/outputs/SEEMIGHistoricalAnalysisHungary.pdf Suggested citation for Chapter 3 Case study: Füzér, Katalin – Marton, Melinda (2013): Case study on dynamic historical analysis of longer term migratory, labour market and human capital processes in Pécs and Baranya. In: Gödri, Irén et al. (2013) Dynamic Historical Analysis of Longer Term Migratory, Labour Market and Human Capital Processes in Hungary. Country report developed within the project ‘SEEMIG Managing Migration and Its Effects – Transnational Actions Towards Evidence Based Strategies’. http://www.seemig.eu/downloads/outputs/SEEMIGHistoricalAnalysisHungary.pdf

  • Dynamic Historical Analysis – Country Report Hungary

    3

    Content

    List of acronyms, abbreviations .................................................................................................... 6 Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... 7 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 10

    1.1. Methodology............................................................................................................... 11 1.2. Definitions................................................................................................................... 12 1.3. Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................... 12

    2. HISTORIC-DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET, HUMAN CAPITAL AND MIGRATION DEVELOPMENTS......................................................................................................................... 13

    2.1. Political and socio-economic overview ......................................................................... 13 2.2. Development of international migration ...................................................................... 15 2.3. Evolution of the migration policy and legal system ....................................................... 17

    3. NATIONAL POLICIES AND PERSPECTIVES REGARDING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION ............. 19 3.1. Legal and policy framework on international migration ................................................ 19 3.2. Perceptions of international migration......................................................................... 22

    4. RECENT SITUATION AND DEVELOPMENTS ON LABOUR MARKET, HUMAN CAPITAL AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION ..................................................................................................... 25

    4.1. Social and economic development ............................................................................... 25 4.1.1. Economic development.................................................................................................. 25 4.1.2. Social development........................................................................................................ 26 4.1.3. Social policy ................................................................................................................... 28

    4.2. Main international migration trends and characteristics of migrants............................. 29 4.2.1. International migration flows........................................................................................ 29

    4.2.1.1. General trends........................................................................................................... 29 4.2.1.2. Immigration flows...................................................................................................... 31 4.2.1.3. Asylum-seekers.......................................................................................................... 34 4.2.1.4. Naturalized foreign citizens....................................................................................... 35 4.2.1.5. Emigration flows........................................................................................................ 35 4.2.1.6. Return migration ....................................................................................................... 37

    4.2.2. Characteristics of the migrant stock.............................................................................. 39 4.2.2.1. Immigrant stock ................................................................................................ 39 4.2.2.2. Emigrant stock .................................................................................................. 41

    4.3. Demography and human capital .................................................................................. 45 4.3.1. Population change......................................................................................................... 45 4.3.2. Population structure and spatial distribution................................................................ 47 4.3.3. Education....................................................................................................................... 49

    4.4. Labour market............................................................................................................. 52 4.4.1. General characteristics of the labour market................................................................ 52 4.4.2. Integration of immigrants on the labour market .......................................................... 55 4.4.3. Effects of emigration on labour market ........................................................................ 57

    5. CASE STUDY ON DYNAMIC HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF LONGER TERM MIGRATORY, LABOUR MARKET AND HUMAN CAPITAL PROCESSES IN PÉCS AND BARANYA............................................ 59

    5.1. Demography, human capital and labour market in Pécs and Baranya............................ 59 5.2. Main international migration trends in Pécs and Baranya ............................................. 60

    6. OUTLOOK AND CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................. 62 7. REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 65 ANNEX ....................................................................................................................................... 71

  • Dynamic Historical Analysis – Country Report Hungary

    4

    List of figures

    Figure 2.1.1: Usually resident population and population growth rate, 1950–2012 ............................................................... 14 Figure 2.1.2: GDP per capita (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollar) and growth rate in %, 1950–2010 ............................ 15 Figure 3.2.1: Attitudes towards refugees in Hungary, 1992–2012........................................................................................... 22 Figure 4.1.1: Inflow of remittances (total) 2001–2011 (in million USD)................................................................................... 26 Figure 4.2.1: Inflows and outflows of foreign citizens in Hungary, 1990–2012........................................................................ 30 Figure 4.2.2: Distribution of foreign citizens immigrating into Hungary by main countries of citizenship, 2001–2012........... 32 Figure 4.2.3: Distribution of foreign citi

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