Drying Foods

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Post on 16-Jan-2015

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Susan Shockey, PhD, of the OSU Extension-Franklin County, discusses the basics of drying various fruits and vegetables.

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<ul><li> 1. Simple, Safe, Easy to Learn Drying Foods</li></ul> <p> 2. Todays Topics </p> <ul><li>Understand how drying process preserves foods </li></ul> <ul><li>Review what equipment is needed </li></ul> <ul><li>Learn how to choose best methods of treating fruits before drying </li></ul> <ul><li>Understand how to blanch vegetables before drying </li></ul> <ul><li>Learn how to safely store dried foods </li></ul> <p> 3. How Does Drying Foods Work? </p> <ul><li>Removes moisture from food so that bacteria, yeasts, and molds cannot grow </li></ul> <ul><li>Drying also slows the action of enzymes, but does not kill them </li></ul> <p> 4. Methods of Drying </p> <ul><li>Sun or Solar Drying </li></ul> <ul><li>Vine Drying </li></ul> <p> 5. Methods of Drying </p> <ul><li>Oven Drying </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Great to use if trying out the process </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Challenging because of daily use </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Hazard for small children </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Slower than dehydrators no air movement </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Food is darker, less flavorful </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Cost more </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 6. Methods of Drying </p> <ul><li>Electric Dehydrator </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Double wall construction-metal or plastic </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Enclosed heating elements </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Enclosed thermostat with dial control </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>From 85 to 160 degrees </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Timer </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Fan or blower </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>4-10 open mesh trays-easy wash plastic </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>UL seal of approval </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 7. Methods of Drying </p> <ul><li>Microwave </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fast way to dry herbs when in small quantities </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Follow MW directions </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Do not use for other food items- moisture doesnt evaporate </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 8. Preparation of Food </p> <ul><li>Select high quality produce </li></ul> <ul><li>Wash and core </li></ul> <ul><li>Leave whole, half, or slice in equal pieces </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Smaller is better </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Select appropriate pretreatment </li></ul> <ul><li>Place in single layer on drying trays </li></ul> <ul><li>Pieces should not touch or overlap </li></ul> <ul><li>Follow directions for your method </li></ul> <p> 9. Pretreatments </p> <ul><li>Fruit </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Sulfuring </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ascorbic Acid </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fruit Juice Dip </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Honey Dip </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Syrup Blanching </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>SteamBlanching </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 10. Pretreatments </p> <ul><li>Vegetables: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Blanching Water or Steam? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Hot water, colander, ice water, drain </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. Testing for Dryness </p> <ul><li><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Brittle </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Flake when crushed </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>No visible moisture </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Pliable, but not sticky or tacky </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Folded in half-doesnt stick to itself </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Berries should rattle </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 12. Packaging and Storing </p> <ul><li>Cool 30-60 minutes </li></ul> <ul><li>Pack loosely in plastic or glass jars </li></ul> <ul><li>Seal containers tightly </li></ul> <ul><li>Store in cool, dark place </li></ul> <ul><li>Dried fruit needs conditioning- </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Pack loosely in plastic or glass jars </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Shake daily </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 13. How Should I Use Them? </p> <ul><li>Snacks: dried fruits </li></ul> <ul><li>Dried vegetables are good in soups, casseroles, easy to re-hydrate </li></ul> <ul><li>Both are good to store as emergency food </li></ul> <p> 14. Drying Meats </p> <ul><li>Meats should be stored in the freezer </li></ul> <ul><li>Precook meat before drying </li></ul> <p> 15. Summary </p> <ul><li>Use up to date information and recipes </li></ul> <ul><li>Collect and inspect needed equipment </li></ul> <ul><li>Use fresh produce </li></ul> <ul><li>Make sure equipment and kitchen are sanitary </li></ul> <ul><li>Follow instructions carefully </li></ul> <ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul> <p> 16. Questions? </p> <ul><li> This material has not been peer-reviewed for statewide distribution -- blind peer review pending. </li></ul> <p> 17. References: </p> <ul><li>Andress, E., &amp; Harrison,J (2006) So Easy to Preserve 5 thed.). CooperativeExtension, The University of Georgia </li></ul> <ul><li>Kendall,P.,DiPersio, P &amp; Sofos, J. Drying Vegetables, bulletin no 9.308,University of Colorado </li></ul> <ul><li>Kendall,P, Dipersio, P. &amp; Sofos, J. Drying Fruits, bulletin no 9.309,University of Colorado </li></ul>

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