drug abuse and trafficking. geo-political situation

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  • DRUG ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING

  • Geo-Political Situation

  • A substance, affecting the central nervous system, causing changes in behaviour and often addiction.Types:Stimulants: Affect the central nervous system, increasing brain activity. Depressants: Damp down brain activity Analgesics: Reduce sensitivity to emotional and physical pain Hallucinogens: Distort perceptions, giving hallucinations

    Definitions

  • Cont. STIMULANTS

    DEPRESSANTS

  • Cont. ANALGESICS

    H

    HALLUCINOGENS

  • Some types of Drugs

  • CocaineCrack cocaineHeroinCannabis/Urumogi,...LSD PCP (Phencyclidine) MethamphetamineLocal brews (Kanyanga, Nyirantarindwa, Muriture,...Drugs and Drug- Trafficking

  • Cannabis: Rubavu (DRC), Kirehe (TZ), Nyungwe,Kanyanga: East, North and .Heroin: DubaiTabs:-Rehypnol,-Valium, -Ectasy: Nyamirambo, Biryogo,

    Sources

  • Neglect of self, family, friends, occupation and society, often with increasing debtsPoor Education (escape School)Suicide (eg. Munyantwari Emmanuel-27th Dec 10 around 20:00 Nyarugenge-Nyamirambo)Child abuse: physical, psychological and sexual abuse

    Impact

  • Increase in crime and driving offencesPromiscuity: risks of STD and HIV

    NDERA HOSPITAL: 750 patients admitted (27% of admissions)Treatment of victims revealed that in 2004, 68 victims were managed at NDERA Hospital while in 2006, 442 were admitted at the same hospital which conform the increasing of such kind of crime in Rwanda.

    Cont.

  • 1968: 50 percent of American service men (GIS) used drugs 1970: GIS number had jump to 65 percent May 26, 1981: pilot using illicit drugs caused an aircraft accident that resulted in: 07 planes destroyed, 11 planes damaged, 14 personnel killed, 48 additional personnel injured (USS NIMITZ)

    Drugs & Security Organs

  • 1994: Colombia, 300 Millions US $(US State Dept)2010,Nov.: Under investigation: Gen Hussein Ali, Rt Commissionner of Police Peter Kivala, Commandant Kenya Police College 1994:Honduras DMI heading Drug Trafficking (US State Dept)Since 2005-2010 a number of RNP & RDF staff have been involved in drugs related crimes.

    Cont.

  • Drug Traffickers/Producers Drug Dealers/Sellers/SuppliersDrug Users/Buyers - YouthDIFFERENCES

  • Producers

    THE INVESTIGATION OF DRUGS AND DRUG-TRAFFICKINGTraffickersDealersSuppliers Street Sellers Drug Users/Buyers Locate principalsMonitor activitiesCrack down groups Determine means of Money LaunderingLocal levelNational levelInternational level

  • Bangladesh linked to Human Trafficking/Drugs !!!

  • Drug TraffickingMoney Laundering: process and methodsDirty Money Clean MoneyPlacementLayeringIntegration(Savona and De Feo 1997)

  • Placement: physical disposal of money by moving funds from direct association with a crime and putting it in the financial system. Criminals achieve this by sometimes moving a small amount at times to avoid raising suspicion. It may also involve bank complicity.Layering involves the creation of false documents traits, conversion of cash into monetary instruments and the conversion of tangibles assets obtained by means of cash purchases. The use of electronic methods to facilitate the layering process is increasing nowadays. Integration: is the final stage at which the money is integrated into the legitimate economy and financial system. The funds are becoming available again to criminals with its occupational and geographical origins hidden from view.

    (Savona and De Feo 1997)

    Money Laundering & Drug Trafficking

  • Since 2005, many suspects involved in Drugs related criminal cases have been arrested and brought to Prosecution

    A total of 1,547 were arrested in the first seven months of 2010 in connection with drug abuse related crimes, with 999 accused of either trading or consuming marijuana

    A big quantity of drugs have been seized and destroyedACHIEVEMENTS

  • 563,948 kilograms of marijuana and 4,274 litres of illegal brew (locally known as Kanyanga, Nyirantarindwa, Muriture), were confiscated and destroyed in the same period;Last year, over 2 million kilograms of marijuana and 1,2 million litres of illegal brew were seized and 3,157 were people arrested in connection with such kind of crimes. Cont.

  • Drugs seized

  • Drugs destroyed

  • Healthy issue

  • Suspects arrested

  • Police in Gatsibo District destroyed illicit brew worth Rwf15.3 million that was impounded in the past three months. They included 4500 packets of Suzie and Leading Waragi manufactured in Uganda and 614 litres of local gin commonly known as Kanyanga, also imported from Uganda, 04/01/11.

  • Crime Figures Jan-Nov 2010

  • Chat for drugs by Regions (2007-Nov 2010)

  • NYARUGNGE(217) GASABO (216)KICUKIRO (109)RUBAVU (105)KIREHE (94)NYANZA (87)GICUMBI (77)

    Districts ranking (Jan-Sept. 2010)

  • A lucrative businessExternal influences (Youths=Users)Lack of enough preventive measures (sensitization through CIMIC & Community Policing especially in youths, schoolsUnemployment

    Some causes of drug trafficking

  • Drug TraffickingBreaking houses and TheftyRape and DefilementAssaultForged Documents, and bouncing cheques

    Crimes ranking (2009- Sept 2010)

  • Countrys Geo-LocationCapacity buildingBudget constraintIgnoranceLucrative businessLegal issues

    CHALLENGES

  • WAY FORWARD

  • Re-enforcing of the Anti-Narcotic Unit (C.I.D) specifically charged with handling drug crimes, the use of sniffer dogs and checking at entry points are some of the measures in place to combat such crime;Many trainings on drugs related crime investigation within our country and abroad.

    Capacity building

  • As prescribed by articles 272-277 of Rwanda Criminal Code, drug trade and consumption are sanctioned with a maximum of three months to five years jail and a fine of 250,000 Frw or either of the penalties.

    Legal issues

  • More attention in Crime Reduction philosophy (Policy and Laws)The proactive method of investigation should be enhanced through CIMIC & Community Policing philosophy in order to reduce all activities related to drug trafficking Trainings for the RDF & RNP in the field of narcotics to bring about multiplier effect

  • To enhance youth sensitization and general population (The future of our Country)Command and control on our staff is recommended as some of them are involved in those crimes (Users);Probably our enemy may use drug trafficking to disturb our system

  • Security and Policy approaches have both to be used in order to deal effectively with Drug TraffickingTo enhance the international co-operation in the field of investigationsTo enhance use of sniffer dogs

  • Drug trafficking is considered to be the first lucrative business for criminals which increases the threat to law enforcers worldwide (Wright, A. 2008) Drug Trafficking represents 8% of the total international trade: 400 billions $ (Bruce Zagaris).Illicit drug use and heavy drinking can jeopardize mission readiness, impair work performance and put lives at risk (Bray and Sanchez).

    Conclusion

  • THANK YOU

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