Drivers guide

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<ul><li><p>Traffic Rules for DriversTraining &amp; Armed Police Branch, Assam*</p></li><li><p>When a motor accident takes place,</p><p>You may be held liable even if it was not your fault.</p><p>No matter whose fault it is, both parties suffer losses.</p><p>Therefore, Always leave a wide Safety Margin.*</p></li><li><p>Road SignsMandatoryOr Regulatory*</p></li><li><p>Road SignsCautionary*</p></li><li><p>TRAFFIC LIGHTSTraffic lights, also known as traffic signals or stop light, is a signaling device that is positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location to indicate when it is safe to drive, ride, or walk using a universal color code. *</p><p> RED The color 'red' on the signal light directs you to stop well before the stop line and not to crowd the intersection. Movement is prohibited in ALL directions. Do not turn left in a red signal unless there is a sign to permit that movement. Amber (Yellow)The amber (or yellow) light comes for a few seconds when the signal changes from green to red. If the yellow light is on when you approach an intersection, slow down and prepare to stop. If caught in the amber signal in the middle of a large road crossing, continue with care and do not accelerate in panic. GreenThe signal light 'green' allows you to move on. Be careful and check whether vehicles from other directions have cleared the road. If you want to turn left or right, check whether the signal permits you to take the turn. If yes, turn but yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles from other directions.</p></li><li><p>TRAFFIC LIGHTS*</p><p>Steady Green Arrow SignalYou can proceed with caution in the direction the arrow points. Remember to yield to all pedestrians and vehicles already in the intersection.Red arrow It prohibits movement in the indicated direction. It may mean no free left turn.Yellow arrowWatch and wait for a sufficient gap in the oncoming traffic before moving in the indicated direction.Flashing Red SignalFlashing red means to come to a complete stop. Do not forget to yield to all other traffic and to pedestrians. Proceed only when the way is clear.Flashing Amber SignalFlashing amber indicates to slow down and proceed with caution.Combination Movement in green arrow direction only is allowed. Movement in any other direction is prohibited.</p></li><li><p>MANUAL TRAFFIC SIGNALS*</p></li><li><p>Who Has the Right of Way?</p><p>Motorists must stop or wait to give a clear passage to the other Vehicle(s) or Individual(s) who have the right of way.Differently-abled persons and children have the right of way at all times.Pedestrians have the first right at an un-manned intersection.At an un-manned intersection, traffic on the right has the right of way.At a roundabout, traffic that has entered the circle before you has the right of way.Traffic on major road has the right of way over traffic on a by lane wanting to enter the major road.On hilly and steeps roads vehicles going uphill have the right of way.Cyclist should be on the edge of the extreme left lane.*</p></li><li><p>Who Has the Right of Way?</p><p>Emergency vehicles like fire bridges, ambulances, Police have the right of way. These vehicle while on emergency duty, can jump red light, drive in no entry areas, or on wrong side.These vehicles (Fire bridges, Ambulance, Police) should be given priority and given clear passage.Pedestrians must be given safe passage over a Zebra crossing.If a subway/foot over-bridge is available the pedestrian should be regulated to use them to cross the road.All road users including pedestrian, cyclist, and slow moving vehicles should strictly obey traffic rules.Traffic going straight along the road will have the right of way over traffic going across the road. Merely showing the indication to go right or left does not give the right of way.*</p></li><li><p>Road markings serve a very important function in conveying to road users information and requirements which might not be possible using upright signs. They have the advantage that they can often be seen when a verge-mounted sign is obscured, and, unlike such signs, they can provide a continuing message. Road markings have their limitations also. They may be completely obliterated, or their conspicuity may be impaired when wet or dirty, and their effective life is reduced if they are subjected to heavy trafficking.Road markingsRoad markings include all lines patters, words and colours applied on or attached to the road surface or kerb, for the said purpose*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsTraffic paints are commonly used for road markings. Other materials such as, road studs, cat's eyes and thermoplastic strips also find their application in road markings. These markings promote road safety and ensure smooth flow of traffic. Sometimes, road markings are used to supplement the message of road signs and other devices.*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsWhite is generally used for carriageway (road) markings except those indicating restrictions for which yellow markings are used. White or yellow together with black are used for kerb and object marking.*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsCentre line </p><p>On undivided two-way roads, the centre line separates the opposing streams of traffic and facilitates their movements. The centre line can be a single broken line, a single continuous (solid) line called a Barrier line, a double solid line or a combination of solid line and broken line. Single and double solid lines, whether white or yellow, must not be crossed or even straddled. *</p></li><li><p>Road markingsLane lines, Edge lines and Centre barrier line markings for a four lane roadRoad markings*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsDouble white/yellow linesDouble Continuous lines are used where visibility is restricted in both directions. Neither stream of traffic is allowed to cross the lines. Stop LineA stop line is a single solid transverse line painted before the intersecting edge of the road junction/ intersection. This line indicates where you are required to stop when directed by traffic officer, traffic light of stop sign. Where a pedestrian crossing is provided, the stop line is marked before the pedestrian crossing. *</p></li><li><p>Road markingsYellow box junctions or keep clearThese are yellow crossed diagonal lines within the box. The vehicles should cross it only if they have a clear space available ahead of the yellow box. In this marked area vehicles must not stop even briefly. Pedestrian (Zebra) Crossings</p><p>These are alternate black and white stripes painted parallel to the road generally known as zebra crossing. Pedestrians should cross a road only at the point where these lines are provided and when the signal is green at controlled crossings. A motorist must stop and give way to pedestrians at these crossings. *</p></li><li><p>Road markingsWarning lines </p><p>Used where visibility is low. May also be used to highlight an approaching road junction, a pedestrian crossing or any other hazard. Warning lines are much longer in length than normal lane lines.Chevron markingsChevron markings are intended to separate streams of traffic travelling in the same direction, e.g. on the approach to a junction or to a pedestrian refuge in a one-way street (Fig-a). They may also be used at the bifurcation or convergence of two motorways or similar roads (Fig-b). Vehicles must not enter chevron areas. Fig-a Fig-b*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsHatch markings Often used to separate opposing flows of traffic (Fig-c). Also used to indicate a reduction in lanes (Fig-d). Vehicles are prohibited from entering hatch marking areas except on an emergency. Fig-c Fig-d'Give way' sign and road markings</p><p>You must give way at the line to traffic on the major road. Stop if necessary. Give way to pedestrians crossing or waiting to cross the minor road.*</p></li><li><p>Road markingsNo passing (overtake) zones</p><p>Do not overtake when you have a solid (continuous) line on your right.*</p></li><li><p>S T O PCZebraCrossingPrecautions to be taken by DriversAt an IntersectionNearly 50% of all driving collisions in cities occur at intersections.*</p></li><li><p>Precautions to be taken by DriversAt an IntersectionChoose the left lane if you want to turn left, the middle lane if you want to go straight, and the right lane if turning right, at least 100 meter in advance. Slow down while approaching an intersection.Give proper indication for at least 5 seconds before you change lane or turn.If the signal for you is not green, stop before the stop line wherever there is a stop line. Stay clear from the zebra crossing. Wait until signal is green and pedestrian crossing is clear.If the signal allows you to go, proceed slowly and cautiously.While approaching an intersection which is not signal-controlled, cover the break and be prepared to stop. Give way to traffic on your right or to all others that have right of way.*</p></li><li><p>While entering and leaving a round about</p><p>Choose your lane as per your exit at least 100 meter in advance.Slow down while approaching a roundabout.Give way to traffic on your right.Merge slowly with the traffic inside the roundabout.Move towards your exit gradually giving proper indication.While turning left to exit the roundabout, be watchful of vehicles on your left and allow them to pass.Be watchful of a pedestrian or an animal that may suddenly appear.Precautions to be taken by Drivers*</p></li><li><p>While Overtaking Never over take from left, always over take from right. Show your intentions of overtaking clearly to your fellow drivers in front. Give proper indication before overtaking. Wait to see what signal the other vehicle has given. Never overtake when the vehicle in front has asked you to wait. Be watchful of a pedestrian or an animal that may suddenly appear in front of the vehicle you are over taking. On roads having two-way traffic, overtake only when an oncoming vehicle is at safe distance. Never overtake at a blind turning when you do not see what lies ahead.</p><p>Precautions to be taken by Drivers*</p></li><li><p>Precautions to be taken by DriversWhile Turning Give proper indication. Start changing lane only when the vehicles behind you have understood your intention. Slow down while approaching the turning point. Turn only when there is sufficient gap between you and vehicles coming from the front and vehicles coming from behind. Vehicles going straight along the road have the right of way. Watch out for pedestrian as well as vehicles coming from your right side. While turning left, give way to vehicles coming from behind on your left. While turning right, give way to vehicles coming from behind on your right.*</p></li><li><p>Fast LaneSlow LaneDriving on a Highway/ExpresswayA Six-lane Expressway *</p></li><li><p>On an Expressway you may not be required to stop at any point. Do not occupy the fast lane except while overtaking. Stick to the middle lane(s) while cruising. Leave the lane on your right unoccupied. Remember that another vehicle may overtake you without indications such as blowing horn. Do not overtake from the left side. Do not overtake in a no passing (overtake) zone. Heavy vehicles should use the slow lane. Drive within the prescribed speed limits. Remember that the upper speed limit or the lower speed limit or both may be specified. Always keep your vehicle neatly between the lane markings. Never position your vehicle over a Lane line marking.Driving on a Highway/Expressway*</p></li><li><p>Never drive on the wrong side of the road.</p><p>10 Do not stop on any of the lanes. If you must stop for some reason, pull up your vehicle on the stop area or service area outside the edgeline. Turn on your emergency flashers.Always give indication for changing lane even if you do not see any other vehicle nearby.</p><p>12. Watch out for cuts in the central verge made at intervals to permit U-turn.13. Watch out for animals, pedestrians and other road users.</p><p>14. Pedestrians and slow moving vehicles should use only the service road and should not come on to the expressway. Driving on a Highway/Expressway*</p></li><li><p>Assam Transport Department Speed Limits . LMV other than transport vehicle= no speed limit</p><p>2. LMV which is a transport vehicle= 65kph.</p><p>3. Motorcycle=50 kph.</p><p>4. Medium or heavy passenger motor vehicle:65 kph.</p><p>5. Medium or heavy goods vehicle=65 kph </p><p>6. Vehicle drawing a trailer= 50 kph.</p><p>7. LMV drawing trailer with more than two wheels= 50 kph.</p><p>8. Heavy goods vehicle or heavy passenger vehicle drawing single trailer= 40 kph.</p><p>9. Heavy goods vehicle or heavy passenger vehicle used by fire brigade = 50kph 10. Any other vehicle = 30 kph.</p><p>*</p></li><li><p>Make sure that your battery and dynamo are in good condition.Be watchful of pedestrians, bicycles, animals and hand-drawn vehicles that operate without lights.Drive at a slow speed to get a safe reaction and stoppage time.Use parking light/indicators when visibility decreases. Turn on the head lights before it is completely dark.Drive with dipped headlight in places where roads are amply lit. If driving on high beam, lower the headlight beam when a vehicle comes from opposite direction.Driving at Night*</p></li><li><p>Keep the headlight clear and clean and check them frequently. Also carry spare bulbs.Keep your windscreen clean; dirty windscreen can impair vision.Avoid looking directly at the head lights of oncoming vehicles. Look at the dark area directly in front of you.To reduce the glare of light coming from behind, tilt your interior rear view mirror or the exterior rearview mirrors as per necessity.Dont mistake a cock-eyed vehicle with one head lamp for a two wheeler.Before over taking, ensure that the oncoming vehicle is at a safe distance.Driving at Night*</p></li><li><p>Driving at Night Watch out for jay-walkers at night in rural areas. The shrubbery on the central divider in four lane highways often hide intending sprinters who may misjudge the speed and distance of oncoming traffic. Look out for them. Watch out for stationary trucks and trailers without back-lights or parking lights. They often park on the main carriageway and due to restricted visibility during monsoon rains or winter fog they may be invisible before it is too late to avoid a collision. Always use auxiliary fog-lamps during rains, foggy conditions or at night or early morning.</p><p> It is advisable to use parking lights or even headlights during day time driving if visibility is poor. That way inattentive drivers or other road users will not miss seeing you especially if you are driving a car with low- visibility colors like grey , black or navy blue etc. White vehicles are considered the most visible because white reflects the most light. Think about it !!</p><p> Avoid driver fatigue. Rest every two hours. *</p></li><li><p>HANDLING VEHICLE EMERGENCIES</p><p>The most important rule in any emergency is DO NOT PANIC. If you stay calm, you will remember what you should do. If you have power steering or a locking steering wheel, never turn off the ignition key until you have come to a full stop.BRAKE FAILURE: If your brake pedal suddenly sinks to the floor:1. Pump the brake pedal fast and hard several times. If that does not work2. Use your emergency or parking brake, but use it gradually.3. Shift to a low gear and look for a place to slow to a stop.4. Make sure your vehicle is off the road.5. After the vehicle has stopped, call for help. Do not try to drive to a garage.*</p></li><li><p>HANDLING VEHICLE EMERGENCIE...</p></li></ul>