Drawspace.com- P10 - Getting Under Your Skin Facial Muscles

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Drawspace.com- P10 - Getting Under Your Skin Facial Muscles

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GETTING UNDER YOUR SKIN: Brenda Hoddinott P-10 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLE This article introduces ten facial muscles around the forehead, eyes, and mouth that are of special interest to artists who draw people. The discussion focuses on the relevance of each muscle (or group of muscles) to artistic, rather than biophysical applications. In the final section, you can challenge yourself to draw each facial muscle (or group of muscles) on a photo of a face. This article is divided into the following four sections: INTRODUCTION: Knowing about the facial muscles and their functions is integral to drawing anatomically correct portraits. Many facial muscles create independent forms that need to be defined in drawings. Also, you can enhance or modify facial expressions when you know how the muscles move the various sections of the face. In the interest of simplicity, Ive given each an easy name based on its function. MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD: Two primary muscles control the movements of the forehead, brow, and eyebrows, creating vertical and horizontal wrinkles on the upper sections of the face. MUSCLES AROUND THE EYES: With only the slightest twist or tremble, two muscles can drastically alter an entire facial expression. MUSCLES SURROUNDING THE MOUTH: With help from six important muscles, a mouth can be contorted in numerous directions to create lots of different facial expressions. This article is recommended for fine art educators, and artists of all ages with an interest in drawing people. 7 PAGES 16 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada April, 2006 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 2 - INTRODUCTION Knowing about the forms of facial muscles and their functions is integral to drawing anatomically correct portraits. Many facial muscles create independent forms that need to be defined in drawings of faces. Another perk is that you can enhance or modify facial expressions when you know how the muscles move the various sections of the face. This article introduces you to ten major facial muscles around the forehead, eyes, and mouth. To keep things simple, Ive given each an easy name based on its function. The illustrations in this article are based on the following frontal photograph of my friend, Rob; however, we all have the same basic facial muscles. ILLUSTRATION 10-01 ILLUSTRATION 10-02 To get a realistic sense of how facial muscles function, you need to examine your own face. Therefore, as you read this article, make sure you either have a hand held mirror, or are sitting in front of a mirror. Pay attention to the movements of your face as you exercise each muscle and subsequently make different facial expressions. Pretend you can see through the skin and try to visualize each muscle or group of muscles. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 3 - MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD Two primary muscles control the movements of the forehead, brow, and eyebrows, creating vertical and horizontal wrinkles on the upper sections of the face. Based on their functions, the names eyebrow-lifter and frowner, describe these muscles well. ILLUSTRATION 10-03 ILLUSTRATION 10-04 1 EYEBROW-LIFTERS: are wide, relatively flat muscles with two independent halves that run vertically across the forehead. The eyebrow-lifter muscle helps create the expressions of sadness, surprise, and fear by moving the forehead. It can lift the eyebrows straight up, subsequently folding the skin upward, causing horizontal wrinkles across the forehead. It can also pull the skin below the eyebrows upward, thereby stretching it taut. ILLUSTRATION 10-05 2 FROWNERS: begin between the eyes at the bridge of the nose, and extend upward and outward above the eyebrows in a fan shape. The frowner muscles help create the facial expressions of anger, sadness, fear, and anxiety by pulling the skin above the upper eyelids inward, and pulling the eyebrows downward and closer together, resulting in vertical wrinkles. Quite often, crescent shaped dimples, and/or wrinkles form slightly above the inner ends of the eyebrows. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 4 - ILLUSTRATION 10-06 MUSCLES AROUND THE EYES With only the slightest twist or tremble, the eyelid-lifter and/or eye-squeezer muscles can drastically alter an entire facial expression. ILLUSTRATION 10-07 3 EYELID-LIFTERS: are tiny muscles, located within the upper eyelid, that control the up and down movements of the upper eyelid, thereby causing the opening and closing of the eyes. As an aside, talented individuals who know how to wink have learned how to move only one eyelid-lifter at a time! ILLUSTRATION 10-08 4 EYE-SQUEEZERS: are oval-shaped muscles surrounding the eye and extending onto the upper cheek. The upper, lower, and center sections, can work independently or together, to create the expressions of stress, anger, happiness, and pain. Eye-squeezer muscles can make very pronounced wrinkles and folds in the skin (often called crows feet), that branch outward and inward, and in some circumstances expand and meet across the bridge of the nose. They can narrow the eye opening to a squint (sometimes so tightly that the eyes look like part of the ensuing mass of wrinkles), Eye-squeezer muscles can also create bulges under the eye and on the upper cheek. MUSCLES SURROUNDING THE MOUTH With help from six important muscles, a mouth can be contorted in numerous directions to create lots of facial expressions. Youll definitely enjoy stretching your mouth, while looking in a mirror, to find each of the muscles in this section. The following drawing shows the locations of the muscles in the lower half of the face that work together to help put our mouths in motion. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 5 - ILLUSTRATION 10-09 ILLUSTRATION 10-10 5 LIP-RAISERS: extends from above the upper lip area, upward and outward onto the cheek in a fan shape. The expressions of disgust, devastation, despair, and sneering can result when the lip-raisers move the upper lip upward. ILLUSTRATION 10-11 6 SMILING MUSCLES: are small but powerful muscles that run from the corners of the mouth back to the ears, and are able to move large sections of the lower face. The smiling muscles contribute to various happy expressions, such as grinning, smiling, giggling, and laughing. ILLUSTRATION 10-12 7 SPEAKING MUSCLES: surround the mouth, and help the mouth make the vast array of motions used for speaking. This multitalented muscle can tighten and contort the lips for puckering (and kissing), and also contributes to the expressions of anger, surprise, and sadness. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 6 - ILLUSTRATION 10-13 8 SADNESS MUSCLES: extend from the corners of the mouth downward, and contribute to such facial expressions as grief, sadness, and frowning. 9 POUTING MUSCLES: push the center of the mouth upward, resulting in a raised and puckered looking chin. ILLUSTRATION 10-14 10 LIP-STRETCHERS: are muscles that pull the lips horizontally back on the face in such extreme expressions as devastation, terror, or intense anger. ILLUSTRATION 10-15 Grab a pencil or pen, refer to Illustration 10-16, and draw lines to represent each of the facial muscles on this photo (Illustration 10-15). ILLUSTRATION 10-16 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 7 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, cont crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted Learn to Draw books. During Brendas twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brendas skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from Forensic Artists International. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her communitys recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several childrens art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.

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