Drawing fun with a pencil

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Drawing fun with a pencil

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1. www.GetPedia.com 2. 1 3. 2FUN WITH A PENCILALSO BY ANDREW LOOMISFigure Drawing for All Its WorthCreative IllustrationDrawing the Head and HandsThree-Dimensional Drawing 4. 3Spacer 5. 4FUNWITH A PENCILANDREW LOOMIS 6. 5COPYRIGHT 1939 BY ANDREW LOOMISFIRST PUBLISHED BY THE VIKING PRESS IN MAY 1939BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA LIMITEDREPRODUCED FOR EDUCATIONAL USE IN DECEMBER 2001All drawings and text within this book are the property oftheir respective copyholders and should not be reproducedfor any reason. They may only be used for thepurpose of practice and study. 7. 6DEDICATED TO EVERYONE WHO LOVES A PENCIL 8. 7MR. WEBSTER DEFINES DRAWINGAS DELINEATION. THAT DOESNTTELL YOU HOW MUCH OF A REALBANG THERE IS IN IT. MAYBEHE NEVER KNEW. MOST FOLKSLOVE TO DRAW EVEN WHENTHEY KNOW LITTLE ABOUT IT. ITSTARTED WITH THE CAVE MAN,AND STILL SURVIVES ON THEWALLS OF PUBLIC PLACES... BE-CAUSEITS SO MUCH FUN, ANDSO EASY, ITS A SHAME NOT TO BEABLE TO DO IT BETTER.ANDREW LOOMIS 9. ALL THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW, TO STARTTHIS BOOK, IS HOW TO DRAW A CIRCLE. . . .And it can be as lopsided as the family budget, andstill work out.Dont start out with that old gag, I couldnt draw a straightline. Neither can I, freehand. If we need a straight line, wecan use a ruler. Now please try it, just for fun.8 10. 9HOWDY FOLKS!Who am I? Oh, just one of Andys little funny folk.But Im important! He gave me a job. Im the spiritof the book, by jeeminy, big nose and all. I representall the blue in here. My right name would be BasicForm, but thats much too high-sounding. He thinksthat name would scare you away. So he just calls me"Professor Blook and lets it go at that. Now, Ive gota few interesting things to tell you. 11. 10Since Andy cannot talk to you personally, he put me inhere so we can really get together. Its tough on Andy,for that guy really loves to talk, especially "shop talk.Now this plan of action is based on the use of simpleforms that are already known and familiar to you, andwhich you can certainly draw.From these simple, known forms, we build otherforms, which without some constructive plan wouldbe too complicated to draw. For instance, the top ofthe head, or cranium, is nearer to a ball in shapethan anything else. So we start with a bull, and addto it the shapes we want. We thus "arrive at the out-linesthat are needed instead of guessing at them. Onlythe most talented end experienced artist can draw atonce the final outlines. That procedure is most diffi-cult,and is the reason most people give up drawing.But knowing how to "construct makes drawing simpleand easy, and a delightful pastime to anybody. By build-ingpreliminary shapes and developing the outlines onthem, we know WHERE TO DRAW OUR REALLINES. There is hardly anything that cannot first beconstructed by the use of simple forms.Santa had a belly, like a bowl full of jelly. Now thatwas a real observation. We know just whet it must hovelooked like. In fact we can see it shaking! Now, the ideais to draw the bowl before the belly. If the observationis correct, it ought to be a simple matter to make it fairlyconvincing as an abdomen for old Nick. Of course wewill cover it with his coat and pants, but well be prettysure the pants dont spoil the big idea. Ipicked on Santa because hell never complain that Imbeing too personal over his appearance. I might justas well have chosen your next-door neighbor, his lunchbasket may be equally rotund, and shake some too.Every form is like some simpler form, with this or thatvariation, and with pieces added on. The simplest 12. 11Forms we know are the sphere, the cube, and the egg.Before we could walk we recognized the sphere inDads new golf bulls; the cubes were in the sugar bowl;as for the eggs, well, the nicest ones were Easter eggs.I say, Draw a line. You cannot know just what Imean. A straight line? A curved line? A jagged line? Awiggly line? There are a thousand kinds of lines; bemore specific. But it I say draw a ball, a cube, an egg,a cylinder, a pyramid, a cone, a rectangular block, ineach case the image you get is perfect. You know ex-actlywhat I mean. Instead of line, we shall think interms of concrete and tangible form, and proceedas if we were handling lumps of clay. You can appreci-atethe value of such a method, for you know the fun-damentalseven before you start; they are obvious toanybody. If you never saw a ball, you should quit rightnow.As you proceed to build all sorts of shapes out ofsimpler ones, it is amazing what you can do withthem, and how accurate and "solid the resulting draw-ingswill appear. The surprising part is that, when theconstruction lines are erased, very few could guess howit had been done. Your drawing appears us complicatedand difficult to the other fellow as mine might seem toyou now. It takes on a look of professional workman-ship,which indeed it has, since the professional artisthas by some method had to construct his work tomake it professional.If you will give the following pages even your amusedattention, I am satisfied you will find much that willsurprise you in the way of ability but perhaps you here-toforenever guessed you had. If it absorbs your inter-est,you might find yourself clever enough to amazethose about you. Just now take my word for it that themethod is simple, practical, and, I believe, possible foranybody to follow. 13. TAKE A GOOD LOOK AT THIS PAGEA circle is a flat disk. If you draw the inside contours, itbecomes a solid ball, with a third dimension. We shallbuild other forms, like lumps of clay, onto this solidity.The construction will be erased, but the solid appearancewill remain, giving form or the appearance of reality.12 14. PART ONE HOW TO DRAW FUNNY FACESGet a pencil and paper quickly! Draw lightly all you see printed inblue. Take one stage at a time, on one drawing, until the last stage;then finish, with strong lines over the light ones, the lines we haveprinted in black. That is all there is to learn! These are "selected or"built in from the basic forms. I call the basic drawings Blooks,after myself .13 15. HERE WE GO!I promised you that all you need to know, to start this book, is how to draw alopsided ball. Whatever shape you draw can be used as a foundation for a funnyface. Do the best you can, even if the ball looks more like a potato.14 16. 15THE FUN STARTS!The big idea is to start with a form. Then develop other formson it. Build your final lines in by selecting, eliminating the linesyou do not use. I leave mine in to show how its done. 17. A SURE METHOD FOR ANYBODY16 18. ITS REALLY GOING TO BE EASIER THAN YOU EXPECTEDNow, if the first drawings you do are not the last word in cleverness, dont bediscouraged. You will soon get the idea. When you begin to sense form, youwill have the whole works. Then well polish up, and they will have to admityou are good.17 19. THE BLOOK BALLIf you will now turn back to page 12 and look at the string of balls, you will seethat we are getting right into big business. You need some practice on these.Never mind if they are a little off.The better you can draw these balls in any old position you wish, the better youare going to be. The line from the top to bottom is the middle line of the face.The horizontal line, which looks like the equator, is the eyeline, and it alsolocates the ear.18 20. JUST PRACTICE ON THESE BLOOKS19 21. THE BEST WAY TO GO ABOUT IT20 22. WE ADD ANOTHER LINE TO THE BALLLook at the diagram. This last line goes completelyaround the ball, thought the axis at each end, and cutsthe eyeline just halfway round on each side of the middleline. The ear joins the head at the point of intersection ofthe eyeline and the earline.21 23. THERE IS NO LIMIT TO THE VARIETYI am a lot more anxious to have you understand the method andcreate your own forms than to copy mine. But copying minenow will get you started.Always construct the head from the cranium down. There is noother satisfactory way. You can see by now that the position ofthe ball determines the pose of the head. The pieces you buildon determine the character.22 24. BLOCKY TREATMENT LENDS CHARACTERBlocky shapes always combine interestingly with round shapes.It is a good idea to make the final lines angular even around curves.It gives a sense of bone and ruggedness of character. You wouldnot do this when drawing pretty girls or babies.Now Ive got a surprise for you. Instead of drawing all therelunkheads, lets try something real. Im going to pose for you.23 25. BLOOK POSES24 26. 25EXPRESSION 27. EXPRESSION26 28. DIFFERENT EXPRESSIONS OF THE FACE27 29. TRICK STUFFTry this on the folks. Tell them draw two overlapping circles, anysize. Draw a middle line through both and build on your own pieces.You can make a head out of any combination. Of course, tell themto draw lightly.28 30. 29TRICK STUFFDraw a circle. Attach two smaller circles, not far apart, any-where.You can put a third above and between them. Thendraw the middle line so it passes between the two small circles.Proceed as usual. 31. HERES A STUNTDraw three balls, one of them small, in any position. Con-nect30the larger balls. Draw a middle line under the small ball.This suggests a head. Now use your imagination to completethe drawing. 32. DONT MISS THIS PAGEHere we combine the ball with other basic forms. With solidforms to build on, the head begins to take on more reality.You can almost anything you want to with the supplemen-taryforms, and come out all right. The is real character draw-ing,and a challenge to you.31 33. PROJECTIONThis page is for the clever folks. It is a method of projectingthe characters you have created into various poses. Try it withvery simple heads at first. You must use your eye and buildvery carefully.32 34. 33VARIETY BY DISTORTIONTake any head. You can distort it by the following methods.This is valuable in caricature. You can trace a photo, and drawfrom the tracing, or take any of your own drawings and dis-tortthem.Here again is a chance for your own invention. Draw a squarearound your subject. Divide each way into eight or more parts.If you wish to distort separate features, change the size of thesquares into which they fall. Make the line cut through eachsquare as it does in your copy, but changed to fit the newproportion of your squares. 1/2, 1/3 square, etc. 35. BABIES34 36. BRATS35 37. THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANE METHODThe Method Developed by Andrew Loomis, Which MakesConstruction Simple for Any Type of Head.We go now into the most important section of thebook. The method here worked out is a develop-ment36of the simple groundwork you have alreadyaccomplished. It need not frighten you, since it isbut slightly more complex than the work up to thispoint.The cranium, as you perhaps have realized, is nevera perfect ball in shape. To draw it correctly we mustmake alterations, some slight and others quite exag-gerated,to fit the various types of skull. Neverthe-less,we can take as a basic form a ball sliced off atthe sides, leaving it a little wider one way than theother, and adding to it or taking some away. Theforehead may be flattened, cut down, or built up asthe case may be. The cranium may be elongated,widened, or narrowed. The facial plane may also bealtered as we see fit without destroying our workingprinciple. The plane simply attaches to the ballwherever we want it, which makes our methodentirely flexible, so that we can represent any typeof head we choose. All other methods I have yet seendo not start with a form anything like the skull, ormake any allowance for the variety of shapes.After this book was pub-lished,I learned with inter-estthat a similar basichead form has been used foryears by Miss E. GraceHanks of the Pratt Insti-tute,Brooklyn, and that shehas written a book basedon this method. 38. THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANE METHOD37 39. THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANE METHODIt is this flexibility and freedom built into themethod that should make it of certain value. Onpage 37 I have given a set of measurements I con-sider38ideal, but these need not be adhered to. Tome the real value of the method is that it makespossible the accurate construction of the headwithout copy or model or, when a model is used,that it allows you to render the type recognizablyand with certainty. It possesses powers of exag-gerationfor comic drawing and caricature as wellas of serious interpretation. It opens an avenue ofapproach to the novice, dispenses to a large ex-tentwith the necessity for tedious and prolongedstudy, and gives almost at the outset the muchneeded quality of solidity which usually comesonly with a knowledge of bone and muscle struc-ture.If you glance at page 39, it will be evident howthe ball and plane is designed to give that appear-anceof actual bony structure. The skull lies withinthis basic form. But over and above this in impor-tanceis the helpful guidance it gives in placingthe features in their correct positions, in relationto the pose of the head. This will come veryquickly, and soon the eye will detect anythingobviously out of drawing.Many years ago I sensed the lack of any methodof approach having any marked degree of accu-racy.I was told to draw the head as an egg or oval,and to proceed from there. Fine for a straight frontview. But what of the jaw in a profile? There isbut a slight hint of the skull formation in an eggshape alone. Again, I was told to build the headstarting with a cube. While this aided one in sens-ingthe perspective, it gave no hint of the skull.How much of the cube was to be cut away? Sincethen I have heard of shadow methods and oth-ers,yet in every case a previous knowledge of thehead was necessary. 40. THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANE METHOD39 41. THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANE METHODWhat I wanted was a method whereby, if a headlooked wrong, I could find out what was wrongwith it, Tampering with a painted head to correctsome bad construction or drawing usually ruinedthe work done. The necessity of starting the headcorrectly in the first place was obvious, so that thefinishing could be approached with the confidencethat after hours of work it would not go sour. Withclosing dates of publications imminent, it is riskybusiness to proceed without a full knowledge ofwhat you are doing.So this method evolved from personal necessity. Imight state here that in the beginning I had not theslightest intention of putting it in book form. How-ever,40when the plan did work itself out finally, Iwas struck with its simplicity. It was one of thoseinstances that make you wonder why you or some-bodyelse had not thought of it before. The fact thatit tied up with our first childish scribbles, whichafter all are a crude statement of form unhamperedby superficial detail, only increased my enthusiasm.Why, then, could not such a plan be made avail-ableto all, from the child scribbler to the profes-sionalartist? The plan changes but slightly fromthe first round ball and added forms to the profes-sionalpiece of work, the difference lying in theability of the individual. It all hinges on the properbuilding of the ball and its divisions. Approachedwith the understanding that one is drawing solidsinstead of lines, the method becomes surprisinglysimple.I do not doubt but that these few pages will proveof inestimable value to many practicing artists, whoI know have been confronted with the same diffi-cultiesof bad drawing and closing dates. But pri-marilythe book is for John Jones, who alwayswanted to draw but could not. 42. AS APPLIED TO DIFFERENT TYPES41 43. SOME HEADS BASED ON PAGE 41This page must give you some idea of the unlimited va-riety42of types and characters possible through building bythe Divided Ball and Plane method. There are thousands oftypes, and each looks different mostly because of the skullrather than the features. Its fun to study an individual, andtry to figure out what kind of ball and plane go together tomake up his face. You really learn to look deep into charac-ter,and beneath the surface. This method calls for no clair-voyance,but a quick eye and a skillful hand. 44. COMIC HEADS BY THE DIVIDED BALL AND PLANEThe above are simple applications of the method. These are nomore difficult than by the previous plan of attaching formsdirectly to the ball. However, the chance of error is greatly less-ened.You might as well have the complete method as part ofit. Time spent on these pages will prove of sound value to any-onesincerely interested in the drawing of the head. It is sug-gestedthat you go on with the book and come back to thissection at intervals. As you try you will improve. By all meansdo not give up. That hand of yours will be doing surprisingthings before long.43 45. THE PRETTY GIRLA pleasing head of a girl depends ninety-nine percent on how wellyou draw it. More exactly, the ball must be drawn well, the con-struction44lines correctly placed on the ball and plane, and the fea-turesnicely placed. Remember there is the width of an eye be-tweenthe eyes. Do not place the mouth too low or get the nose toolong. I have used a pen here. Try it sometimes. 46. A METHOD OF CHECKINGThe blue lines in the diagram above are our same construction lines.They may be done on tracing paper over any face. You can thus quicklyfind a feature that has been incorrectly placed. You can also find theball and plane position in a photographic head this way. Whether youare building or tearing down, the method applies.45 47. THE WOMEN FOLKS46 48. TWENTY KIDS47 49. ETERNAL YOUTH48 50. THE OLD FOLKS49 51. 50OH, BOY, OH, BOY! NOW THE FUN REALLY STARTS 52. PART TWO PUTTING THE HEAD ON THE BODY51 53. THE COMIC FIGUREYou know, Ive a hunch you have been itching toget into this portion of the book. Well, it is reallygoing to be great fun to create little people of yourown, doing anything you want them to. There isnothing hidebound in this plan either. Take it in easydoses for the fun thats in it. Whether the folks youdraw will ever bring home the bacon is a matter ofcircumstance and how clever you get to be. But itsworth the effort to get that bang out of being able todo it.When you were a very little boy or girl your brainchildren probably looked like these. If they did,you had a great deal of undeveloped talent, and ifyou have not been drawing ever since, its a realshame. When the little youngster starts to draw,he instinctively does a better job than he does lateron. He goes to essentials, a crude representationof the bulk without the detail. Soon he forgets thebody and starts drawing buttons and clothes witha face on them. Result: he gets discouraged andtransfers his attention to some pretty blond curlsor a new bicycle.In all seriousness, I say that Nos. 1 and 2 of themarginal drawings have great possibilities; 3 and4 still have hope. But 5 verges on those awful draw-ings52in public places. 54. Now we start with something very much like 1 and 2.For want of a better name we shall call himDoohinkus. All we need do is add some sort of boxfor a pelvis, some pads for hands and feet, some ballsat the joints, and a straight line across for shoulders.We thus give him the following characteristics.Head is a ball.Chest is a ball.Pelvis is a box slanted out at back and in at the sides.The spine does not go through the chest ball butaround the back of it.The legs are not straight but curve in to the kneesand out toward the foot.Forearm is slightly curved.Chest ball is divided by a line through the middleand flaring lines at the bottom, like a Y upside down.The reason for the curve on the bones is that theythus become springy and shock-absorbing.Without those curves we would be nervous wrecksbefore we were in short pants or panties as the casemay be.Every limb is movable in practically all directions.The chest ball is fixed to the spine but the spine bendsin all directions. It can also twist or turn, so that thereis a wide range of movements possible between spineand pelvis.The human body is just about the nicest bit of me-chanicswe have in the world. We can walk, run, jump,climb, stand erect, sit, all without any oiling or burnt-outsparkplugs. Our motor starts and stops once. Ifwe take care of the engine it will outlast any metalone. Lets go!53 55. HERE WE GO!The proportions of your little figures may be varied in anysort of way. Below we show a variety of comic exaggerations.54 56. WE START ON THE FIGUREWe shall start at once to put them into action. There will alwaysbe movement of the parts. Draw this page carefully and becomethoroughly familiar with the movement of each part.55 57. DOOHINKUS MOVES ABOUT. STUDY THE FRAMEWORK56 58. PURPOSELY OFF BALANCE57 59. DO SOME OF THESE58 60. TRY THESE, THEN INVENT SOME OF YOUR59 61. BUILDING ON THE FRAMEWORK60 62. BUILDING ON THE FRAMEWORK61 63. A WAY TO SET UP THE ACTIONTake any jointed doll if possible, one jointed at thewaist. This fellow was a plain wooden art-store man-nikin.62In order to make him exist for you as some-thingmore than wooden chunks, I dolled him up, withpaint, putty, and a bit of hair from the bathroom rug.Then I got busy with my candid camera. He is a queer-lookinglittle guy, a sort of cross between GrouchoMarx and a cigar-store Indian; but he is made of parts,and it is the appearance of these parts in action thatwe are interested in. In this way Doohinkus Manni-kinis better than a live model. The black lines onhim help you his bulk, just as they do on the ball.Take some of these poses. Start by drawing the frame-workin the approximate action. It is not importantthat you maintain the same proportions, and you cansubstitute any head. Change him to suit yourself, butwatch the positions of the parts carefully. Build oneach part as you it. Note whether lines at joints curveup or down, how the part is tipped toward or awayfrom you, you can exaggerate the action of the hipsand shoulders, as those actions were quite limited inthe mannikin. You can also, if you wish, render thelight and shadow on the parts.Tracing these, or copying without building, will doyou no good. But if you will build a dozen or so,you will be able to set up figures of your own, in al-mostany action. The correct assembling of the partsof the figure is much more important than actualknowledge of the bones and muscles. You cannot putclothes on your figures properly without knowing theaction of under the clothes, and the flexing and pull-ingof the material over them from one part to an-other.Pages 66 and 67 will show how to go about it. 64. DOOHINKUS MANNIKIN SHOWS YOU THE PARTS IN ACTION63 65. 64BUILD FIGURES FROM THESESTART WITH THE FRAMEWORK 66. AFTER DRAWING THESE, TRY SOME OF YOUR65 67. HOW YOU USE THE DOOHINKUS POSESHere is the way to go about the preceding poses. I have chosen figureNo. 8 at random. First, it is a good idea to know what the normalfigure is like. You neednt draw this unless you are interested. Thebottom figures illustrate how the exaggerated is based on the normal.66 68. 67JUST PLAY WITH THE FIGURESThe main idea is to enjoy yourself. Some day you may justput clothes right over the framework. But it is better alwaysto sketch in the figure. Do not follow the photos literally. Doa lot of inventing, I wish I had more space here, but perhapsthese will give you a working basis. 69. THE SUIT68 70. THE DRESS69 71. HOW TO DRAW A HAT CORRECTLY70 72. FREAK HATS71 73. THE HAND72 74. FEET73 75. NOW WE BUILD THE FIGURE AND PUT ON SOME CLOTHES74 76. EXPERIMENT ON FELIX THE ICE75 77. TRICK STUFF76 78. TRICK77 79. NOW HAVE SOME FUN78 80. TRY TO WORK OUT THE CONSTRUCTION YOURSELF79 81. EXPERIMENT WITH THESE80 82. IM PUTTING YOU ON YOUR OWN81 83. THESE OUGHT TO BE INTERESTING82 84. BUILD THEM UP; DONT JUST COPY83 85. NOW LETS MIX UP THE RACES84 86. YOU CAN DRAW THEM ALL BY OUR METHODS85 87. ALSO THESE86 88. AMONGUSMORTALS87 89. DOWN ON THE FARM88 90. WHEN YOU AND I WERE YOUNG, MAGGIE89 91. ANNABELLE90 92. JUST NATURALLY ATHLETIC91 93. VAMPS92 94. AND MORE VAMPS93 95. FORESHORTENINGUnless one has a sound method of building,foreshortening is very difficult. In the figure at theright, the parts resemble the Doohinkus photos. Ifyou think of the figure as sections fitted together,foreshortening takesfully as we built the head in Part One. Think ofsolidsBelow, we obtain foreshortening by projecting a pro-file94into a front view, or the reverse, as we did withthe head. Establish the desired tilt and position ofthe parts, then by parallel lines build the other posi-tionof the figure so that all important points coin-cide.When the figure is close, increase the partsthat are closest and diminish the parts that are awayfrom you. I did not do this, fearing it might confuseyou. I personally prefer the method at the top, us-ingthe eye, but often a difficult problem can beworked out easily this way, and it is well to knowhow. 96. 95THUS ENDETH PART TWOHeres Gas House Nellie back with us, and what awallop! Shes here to show you theres no foolinabout those little Doohinkuses, You can get morereal stuff into your figures in two minutes this waythan in two days of trying to horse around with thefinished drawing that has not been planned out. IfNellie isnt really slamming this guy, Im aChinaman. I can almost hear it. 97. NOW THAT IVE GOT ALL OF YOU, WHAT TO DO!96 98. PART THREE A WORLD FOR YOUR FIGURES TO LIVE IN97 99. PERSPECTIVE98 100. HOW TO ESTABLISH FIGURES ON THE GROUND99 101. PERSPECTIVE IN THE FIGURE100 102. COMMON FAULTS101 103. FURNITURE102 104. HOW TO PROJECT FURNITURE ONTO THE GROUND PLANEHere is an excellent method for building furniture and figures on a ground plane. Itis simpler103 105. BUILDING AN INTERIOR FROM A GROUND PLAN-I104 106. BUILDING AN INTERIOR FROM A GROUND PLAN-II105 107. BUILDING AN INTERIOR FROM A GROUND PLAN-III106 108. BUILDING AN INTERIOR FROM A GROUND PLAN-IVAnd here is the finished drawing. Its fun to try inking in some of yourpencil drawings. Get a bottle of waterproof black drawing ink. Youcan get a box of school water colors, also, and get still more fun outof it. Knowing just what is the correct perspective helps so much togive that solid, finished, and professional look. This procedure opensup a whole world for the little figures you have learned to draw. It isworth while to see what you can do with this method. It offers a possi-bilityof setting some work, besides the thrill of doing it. Now we shall107take up a new subject.BEDTIME 109. LIGHT AND SHADOW: THE PRINCIPLERays of light travel in straight lines. From any spot, the middle ray, the per-pendicular108to source, would meet the earth and pass through its center. At thepoint directly under the source we establish the point DL, meaning direction oflight. S will mean source at the top of the perpendicular,From the farthest limit of the shadow to DL, then up to the source and back to theshadow, forms a triangle. The third corner of the triangle will be called At, mean-ingangle of light. DL may be the vanishing point of the shadow or the base fromwhich it proceeds outward. 110. A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR GROUND SHADOWS109 111. LIGHTANDSHADOW110 112. LIGHTANDSHADOW111 113. LIGHTANDSHADOW112 114. 113THE LAST HILLI have a chosen a problem here that would be very difficult without some under-standingof the fundamentals given in Part Three. By the use of perspective, to-getherwith the effect of light and shadow, we create the illusion of space, form, anda quality of existence.This drawing may have the feel of having been sketched from life, because of thefundamental principles applied to it. However, it was done from the imagination,without any copy, simply to show you the possibilities.It is a great storehouse of material. By all means, draw from that great source. Donot just copy. Build with what you observe for yourself to be true. Try to get theindividual quality of each thing you draw. It is that quality that makes the artistinteresting. 115. TIMES UP, FOLKS. WE GOTTA GO. BY.114 116. 115THE AUTHORS CORNERI guess all you folks will forgive me for reserving a tinycorner of the book as my own. Everything must eventu-allycome to an end, and so with this book, my first effortof this kind. It has been a concentrated effort. At times Ihave seen the daylight fade and come back again with-outsleep. Ill never tell anybody the actual time it tookme to make these (it seems) thousands of drawings. Imsure he would not believe me. Im dreadfully tired butimmensely happy. It has been intensely interesting, for Ihave retraced the ground of years ago. It has carried meback to the first struggle for knowledge that might earnme a living. It has reminded me of the early drawingswhich so often came back.How simple it all might have been, had I in the beginningbeen able to assemble these working principles, put themin order, and work with them as I do now. But they werebits of knowledge plucked out of the air like bits of flufffrom a seed pod. Only a few within your grasp, just afew to take root and flourish. Strangely, the simplest factsalways are the latest in being understood. And when theyare. Their utter simplicity is the best reason for theiracceptance, even at the cost of having to sweep out thepet theories and ideas accumulated over half a lifetime.At best, how do I know that Im any more right now thanin my student days? The answer is that of the con-valescentwho has suffered and got well again. Lack ofknowledge can be greater torture than the effort of ac-quiringit. I know only that I am happier in my work thanI was then. It has gained publication in places that onceseemed hopeless for me. I can approach the work withpeace of mind and confidence boon of experience. Thisbook is an effort to transplant that peace of mind to somefew thousand others who otherwise must fall victims tothe selfsame devices which contrive to make before theycan make even a meager start. 117. WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE, NATURE IS YOURBEST INSTRUCTOR116 118. LEARN TO DRAW FROM LIFE117 119. 118 120. I can think of no field of endeavor so sadly lacking in simpleorganization of its working principles. Nothing quite so hap-hazard,hit-or-miss, as the whole field of artistic endeavor. Iam not a cartoonist, but I choose caricature for the beginner:principally because there is fun in it, and from the start Iwant him to feel a little of the creative joy he is entitled to.When artists begin to compile and set down their combinedexperience, give freely and humbly what little they can add,as do the other sciences, then art may have some chance toreestablish itself in the hearts of everyday people even againstthe mechanical perfection of the camera; even in a period ofsocial adjustment and financial depression. The mental de-pressionof our era weighs heavier on our race and futurethan do our dollars or lack of them. A little joy from the in-sidemust be welcome to almost anybody. Perhaps my book isa step in that direction.Yes, folks, Im tired, but Im happy. My little job, feeble as itmay be, is done. I wait as breathlessly to see how you will likeit as 1 ever waited for the verdict of any art editor or director.Id give many more sleepless hours just to feel with you thatfirst thrill of having createdeven if it be mere lines of a pencil. Youll get to love thoselittle folks you draw, even if they are a bit unwieldy and onlya little bit human.119 121. 120 122. 121 123. 122