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DrgerSensor & Portable Instruments Handbook2nd Edition
Drger Safety AG & Co. KGaALbeck, Germany 2011
DrgerSensor & Portable Instruments Handbook
This handbook is intended to be a reference for the users of portable gas detection. The in-formation has been compiled to the best of our knowledge. However, the Drger organiza-tion is not responsible for any consequence or accident which may occur as the result of mi-suse or misinterpretation of the information contained in this handbook.
The instructions for use may not always correspond to the data given in this book. For a fullunderstanding of the performance characteristics of the measurement devices and for theuse of Drger products, only the instructions of use enclosed with the product shall applyand any inconsistencies between this handbook and the instructions for use shall be resol-ved in favour of the instructions for use. The user should carefully read and fully understandthe instructions for use prior to the use of the measurement devices.
The use of descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., even if not explicitly marked,does not justify the assumption that such names are exempt from trademark and brand pro-tection and therefore may be used freely by anyone.
Technical data is subject to modifications.
Publisher: Drger Safety AG & Co. KGaADrgerSensor & Portable Instruments HandbookLbeck, Germany2009
2009 Drger Safety AG & Co. KGaARevalstrasse 1 23560 Lbeck GermanyAll rights reserved, in particular the right of reproduction,dissemination, and translation.
Printed in GermanyPress date: 2012
1 Foreword 7
2 Properties of dangerous gases and vapors 82.1 Gases what is a gaseous matter? 82.2 Vapors arent they gases, too? 92.3 Our atmosphere 102.4 Ex, Ox, Tox gas hazards! 122.5 Toxic gases and vapors 132.6 Flammable gases and vapors 142.7 LEL and preventative explosion protection 162.8 Flash point of flammable liquids 172.9 Concentration and their calculation 18
3 Introduction to portable instruments 193.1 Application areas for portable gas detection 193.2 Requirements for gas detection instruments 213.3 Explosion protection 233.4 ATEX 137 directive 1999/92/EC 243.5 ATEX 95 directive 94/9/EC 263.6 Laws and regulations in USA, Canada, and Mexico 303.7 Single-gas measuring instruments 363.8 Multi-gas measuring instruments 44
4 Introduction to sensor technology 664.1 Selecting the proper measurement method 674.2 Overview of detectable vapors and gases 684.3 Drger CatEx sensors 864.4 Drger infrared sensors 1084.5 Drger PID sensors 1284.6 Electrochemical sensors 132
DrgerSensor XS 134DrgerSensor XXS 204
4.7 Explanation to the sensor data 268
5 Accessories 2725.1 Introduction 2735.2 Equipment for calibration and function tests 2735.3 Basic test with gas 2745.4 Drger Bump Test Station 2745.5 Drger E-Cal the workshop solution 2755.6 Calibration gases 2765.7 Regulator valves 2775.8 Pumps 2785.9 Probes 2785.10 Extension hoses 2815.11 Drger CC-Vision 2835.12 Drger GasVision 283
ring confined space entry
E-CalCalibrations and Test System
Bump Test Station
X-zone Inductive Charger
X-zone 5000 attenuation ring
Pump- and calibration adapter
Pump X-am 125
X-am 1700 X-am 2000
Pac 3500 Pac 5500
MultiPID 2 (suitable for leakage detection)
X-am 7000(suitable for leakage detection)
X-zone 5000(combined with X-am 5000 or X-am 5600)
So here it is first edition of the DrgerSensor & Portable Instruments Handbook. Whilecreating this new handbook, we had our current customers in mind as well as prospective customers and also our own staff. We gathered our own expertise together with some general principles and guidelines from the areas in which portable Portable Instrumentsareused. We hope that this will shed some light on the many and varied aspects of our sensorsand portable gas detectors, so as to increase the safety in your place of work.
Drger has been involved for decades in the development and production of gas detectionsensors and portable gas detection devices. This is a subject area in motion panta rhei, as Heraclitus would have said and the development is ongoing. Lots of innovative ideas have found their way into patents for sensors and gas detection devices. We have workedthrough, and continue to work through, lots of learning curves. And that is why it is always of tremendous benefit to gather the experience we have in the field of instrumentation together with our expertize in the development of sensors within one company. The demandsplaced on gas detection by the numerous standards and regulations are becoming more andmore complex.
We are continually having to adjust in order to increase safety levels and protect peoples lives.We hope that this handbook will provide you with a tool which will give you a quick, clear overview of the technologies we use right down to the details.
May this book prove to be a dependable companion!
With best regards,
Ulf Ostermann Portfolio Manager, Portable Instruments
P.S. A special thank to all the hard-working people who helped to produce this handbook.
8| Properties of dangerous gases and vapors
Flammable and toxic gases and vapors occur in many areas. It is important to recognizethe danger they pose and that is the purpose of gas detection and warning devices.This handbook is meant to give a basic introduction to gas detection technology, measuring principles and safety concerns.
2 Properties of dangerous gases and vapors
Matter at a temperature above its boiling point is referred to as a gas. In terms of the normal human environment, this means that all those substances whose boiling pointsat normal atmospheric pressure are below 20C (68 F), are gases. The lightest gas ishydrogen (H2, fourteen times lighter than air), the heaviest gas (around ten times heavier than air) is tungsten hexafluoride (WF6).
2.1 Gases what is a gaseous matter?
Under normal conditions, one cubic centimeter of gas contains thirty trillion molecules, whoseaverage distance from one another is only around 3 nanometers. They move through spaceat between several hundred and several thousand meters per second but, at the same time,they collide with other molecules many billions of times each second. With the result that theyonly cover around 50100 nanometers between impacts, and they continuously change theirdirection and transfer energy to the other molecules with which they collide.
The result is a completely random molecular motion which in macroscopic terms can be measured as temperature (average kinetic energy of all the molecules) and pressure (the average force exerted on a surface by all the molecules hitting it), as well as volume (spatialextent). Pressure, temperature, and volume are always in a fixed relationship to one another, which is governed by external conditions. In an ideal situation, they obey what isknown as the ideal gas law, namely:
At a constant pressure, their volume changes in proportion to their temperature their volume increases when heated;
If the volume remains the same (for example, in a closed container), then their pressure changes in proportion to their temperature for example, the pressure insidea container increases when heated;
At a constant temperature, pressure changes inversely proportion to volume for instance, the interior pressure rises when gas is compressed.
The extremely fast random movement of gas molecules is also the reason why they mix freelywith other gases, never to become seperated again. This molecular behavior also explains thetendency of molecules to become less concentrated (diffusion), something which plays an im-portant role in gas detection technology. Generally speaking, these processes become faster, the more quickly the molecules move (in other words, the hotter the gas is) and thelighter the molecules are (in other words, the lighter the gas is).
Unlike gas of which there are only perhaps between 200 to 300 the word vapor isused to describe the gaseous state of a material below its boiling point. Vapor is always in equilibrium with its fluid (and sometimes solid) phase it condenses and vaporizes according to the temperature. This is most familiar to us with water; whenmoist air near the ground cools down at night, ground mist forms (condensation) butthe warmth of the morning sun dissipates the mist (evaporation).
2.2 Vapors arent they gases, too?
In a closed container, a maximum vapor concentration always exists above the surface of a liquid, and this concentration is dependent on the temperature of the liquid. On a microscopic level, the vapor is a result of the random movement of the liquids moleculescombined with their ability to overcome the surface tension and mix with the air moleculesabove the surface.
Every liquid has a certain characteristic vapor pressure, which depends on its temperature andreaches atmospheric pressure when the liquid reaches its boiling point. A graphic depictionof this relationship is known as a vapor pressure curve, and it show