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  • MICROFOSSILS the oceans storytellers

    Copyright 2008 Consortium for Ocean Leadership

    Note about size: These images have been enlarged using various magnifications. The microfos-sils range in actual size from less than 10 microns up to 2 millimeters. 1 micron = 1 x 10-6 meters.

  • Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.oceanleadership.orgNannofossils Reveal Seafloor Spreading Truth!

    2

    Intr

    od

    uct

    ion

    fo

    r Te

    ach

    erB

    ackg

    rou

    nd

    T

    he g

    oal o

    f the

    Dee

    p S

    ea D

    rillin

    g P

    roje

    ct

    (DS

    DP

    ) w

    as to

    inve

    stig

    ate

    the

    sedi

    men

    ts

    and

    rock

    s be

    neat

    h th

    e de

    ep o

    cean

    s by

    dr

    illin

    g an

    d co

    ring.

    The

    dat

    a fe

    atur

    ed

    in th

    is e

    xerc

    ise

    wer

    e ta

    ken

    from

    cor

    es

    colle

    cted

    by

    the

    Glo

    mar

    Cha

    lleng

    er d

    rill

    ship

    , at s

    even

    site

    s ea

    st a

    nd w

    est o

    f the

    M

    id-A

    tlant

    ic R

    idge

    dur

    ing

    DS

    DP

    Leg

    3, i

    n la

    te 1

    968

    (see

    Fig

    ure

    2). T

    he h

    oles

    wer

    e dr

    illed

    in th

    e S

    outh

    Atla

    ntic

    bet

    wee

    n R

    io

    de J

    anei

    ro, B

    razi

    l and

    Dak

    ar, S

    eneg

    al.

    The

    age

    of t

    he c

    onta

    ct b

    etw

    een

    the

    sedi

    men

    t and

    the

    basa

    lt of

    the

    ocea

    n flo

    or w

    as d

    eter

    min

    ed b

    y id

    entif

    ying

    the

    nann

    ofos

    sils

    foun

    d at

    eac

    h co

    ntac

    t.

    Ob

    ject

    ives

    Stu

    dent

    s w

    ill a

    naly

    ze r

    eal d

    ata

    co

    llect

    ed fr

    om th

    e D

    eep

    Sea

    Dril

    ling

    Pro

    ject

    to d

    isco

    ver

    evid

    ence

    of

    seafl

    oor

    spre

    adin

    g.

    Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.oceanleadership.orgSecrets of the Sediments - Student Guide

    2

    Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.deepearthacademy.org

    Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.deepearthacademy.org

    Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.oceanleadership.orgSmall Creatures, Big Science

    2

    Teaching for Science Learning for LifeTM | www.deepearthacademy.org

    Secr

    ets o

    f the

    Sed

    imen

    ts - S

    tude

    nt G

    uide

    Using

    Mar

    ine S

    edim

    ents

    to S

    tudy

    Glob

    al Cl

    imat

    e Cha

    nge

    Bef

    ore

    Yo

    u B

    egin

    1. T

    hink

    abo

    ut th

    ese

    ques

    tions

    and

    re

    cord

    you

    r an

    swer

    s on

    you

    r ow

    n pa

    per

    or

    on th

    e ba

    ck o

    f thi

    s pa

    ge.

    a. W

    hat i

    s cl

    imat

    e?

    b. H

    ow w

    ould

    you

    des

    crib

    e th

    e cl

    imat

    e in

    yo

    ur c

    ity, t

    own

    or v

    illag

    e?

    c. D

    oes

    clim

    ate

    have

    any

    dire

    ct e

    ffect

    s on

    yo

    ur li

    fe?

    Doe

    s cl

    imat

    e ch

    ange

    ? Ta

    lk to

    yo

    ur p

    aren

    ts a

    nd g

    rand

    pare

    nts

    abou

    t any

    cl

    imat

    e ch

    ange

    s th

    ey r

    ecal

    l.

    2. B

    rain

    stor

    m a

    nd r

    ecor

    d so

    me

    idea

    s fo

    r th

    is e

    ssen

    tial q

    uest

    ion:

    a.

    How

    can

    we

    stud

    y gl

    obal

    clim

    ate

    chan

    ges?

    b. W

    hat p

    iece

    s of

    evi

    denc

    e ca

    n w

    e lo

    ok

    for

    to s

    ee h

    ow th

    e E

    arth

    s c

    limat

    e ha

    s ch

    ange

    d ov

    er th

    e pl

    anet

    s lo

    ng h

    isto

    ry?

    Bac

    kgro

    un

    dT

    he J

    OID

    ES

    Res

    olut

    ion

    (JR

    ) is

    a s

    hip

    that

    trav

    els

    the

    wor

    ld c

    orin

    g ro

    ck a

    nd

    sedi

    men

    ts fr

    om th

    e bo

    ttom

    of t

    he o

    cean

    . W

    hen

    sedi

    men

    t cor

    es a

    re r

    emov

    ed fr

    om

    the

    ocea

    n flo

    or, t

    hey

    unde

    rgo

    a va

    riety

    of

    proc

    esse

    s in

    clud

    ing

    visu

    al d

    escr

    iptio

    ns,

    stud

    ies

    of th

    e m

    icro

    foss

    ils, a

    naly

    sis

    for

    pale

    omag

    netis

    m, d

    eter

    min

    atio

    n of

    se

    dim

    enta

    tion

    rate

    s, a

    nd c

    hem

    ical

    stu

    dies

    of

    the

    sedi

    men

    ts in

    clud

    ing

    stab

    le o

    xyge

    n is

    otop

    es a

    nd c

    arbo

    nate

    s.

    Ob

    ject

    ives

    Dur

    ing

    this

    act

    ivity

    , you

    will

    gra

    ph a

    nd

    anal

    yze

    data

    from

    sed

    imen

    ts c

    olle

    cted

    off

    the

    coas

    t of S

    anta

    Bar

    bara

    , Cal

    iforn

    ia to

    de

    term

    ine

    whe

    ther

    this

    info

    rmat

    ion

    can

    be

    used

    to s

    tudy

    his

    toric

    al c

    limat

    e ch

    ange

    .

    Vo

    cab

    ula

    ryst

    able

    isot

    ope

    sedi

    men

    t co

    re

    m

    icro

    foss

    il

    Mat

    eria

    ls1.

    Gra

    ph p

    aper

    2. R

    uler

    s

    Act

    ivit

    ies

    1. I

    soto

    pes

    are

    atom

    s w

    ith th

    e sa

    me

    num

    ber

    of p

    roto

    ns, b

    ut d

    iffer

    ent n

    umbe

    rs

    of n

    eutr

    ons;

    the

    mor

    e ne

    utro

    ns, t

    he

    heav

    ier

    the

    isot

    ope.

    Uns

    tabl

    e is

    otop

    es,

    like

    uran

    ium

    , dec

    ay o

    ver

    time

    and

    geol

    ogis

    ts c

    an u

    se th

    em fo

    r ag

    e de

    term

    inat

    ion

    and

    datin

    g. S

    tabl

    e is

    otop

    es

    do n

    ot d

    ecay

    and

    can

    ther

    efor

    e pr

    ovid

    e in

    dire

    ct r

    ecor

    ds o

    r pr

    oxie

    s of

    pas

    t clim

    ate

    chan

    ge. O

    xyge

    n oc

    curs

    in th

    ree

    stab

    le

    isot

    opes

    : oxy

    gen-

    16 (

    16O

    ), o

    xyge

    n-17

    (1

    7 O),

    and

    oxy

    gen-

    18 (

    18O

    ). W

    hich

    isot

    ope

    is h

    eavi

    er?

    2. W

    ater

    s c

    hem

    ical

    com

    posi

    tion

    is H

    2O.

    The

    oxy

    gen

    in w

    ater

    is u

    sual

    ly 1

    6 O b

    ut

    som

    etim

    es 1

    8 O. 1

    7 O is

    ver

    y ra

    re. I

    n te

    rms

    of th

    e hy

    drol

    ogic

    al c

    ycle

    and

    eva

    pora

    tion,

    w

    hich

    oxy

    gen

    isot

    ope

    wou

    ld e

    vapo

    rate

    fir

    st?

    Why

    ?

    3. C

    alca

    reou

    s m

    icro

    foss

    ils u

    se o

    xyge

    n fr

    om th

    e w

    ater

    as

    one

    com

    pone

    nt o

    f th

    eir

    carb

    onat

    e (C

    aCO

    3) s

    hells

    , and

    are

    a

    good

    indi

    cato

    r of

    the

    oxyg

    en c

    hem

    istr

    y of

    the

    wat

    er w

    hen

    they

    wer

    e al

    ive.

    Tab

    le

    1 sh

    ows

    the

    18O

    :16 O

    rat

    ios

    and

    the

    ages

    of

    mar

    ine

    mic

    rofo

    ssils

    foun

    d in

    the

    San

    ta

    Bar

    bara

    sed

    imen

    t cor

    e. P

    lot t

    he 1

    8 O:1

    6 O

    ratio

    vs.

    sed

    imen

    t age

    and

    con

    nect

    the

    poin

    ts o

    n a

    shee

    t of g

    raph

    pap

    er.

    4. A

    naly

    sis

    a. L

    ook

    at th

    e gr

    aph

    and

    desc

    ribe

    wha

    t yo

    u se

    e.

    b. D

    urin

    g w

    hat t

    hree

    age

    s or

    tim

    e pe

    riods

    ca

    n yo

    u fin

    d th

    e hi

    ghes

    t 18 O

    :16 O

    rat

    ios?

    c. I

    dent

    ify a

    nd li

    st th

    e tim

    e pe

    riods

    with

    th

    e lo

    wes

    t 18 O

    rat

    ios.

    TAB

    LE

    1

    Age

    (in

    thou

    sand

    s of

    yea

    rs)

    2 6 8 11 13 15 16 18 20 21 30 42 50 57 58 62 68 74 82 94 102

    109

    124

    131

    136

    144

    149

    150

    157

    18O

    :16 O

    Rat

    io

    2.2

    2.4

    2.5

    3.1

    3.5

    3.1

    3.6

    4.1

    3.8

    4.0

    3.5

    3.0

    3.1

    3.3

    3.4

    4.2

    3.6

    3.4

    3.0

    3.0

    2.8

    2.4

    2.2

    3.7

    3.9

    3.7

    3.9

    3.8

    3.5

    Tabl

    e ad

    apte

    d fro

    m K

    enne

    tt, 1

    995

    d. W

    hy d

    o yo

    u th

    ink

    this

    pat

    tern

    occ

    urre

    d?

    Wha

    t mig

    ht h

    ave

    been

    hap

    peni

    ng g

    eolo

    gica

    lly?

    Clim

    atol

    ogic

    ally

    ? (T

    hink

    abo

    ut th

    e hy

    drol

    ogic

    al c

    ycle

    , sno

    w a

    nd th

    e fo

    rmat

    ion

    of la

    rge

    ice

    shee

    ts li

    ke th

    ose

    cove

    ring

    Gre

    enla

    nd a

    nd th

    e A

    ntar

    ctic

    con

    tinen

    t.)

    e. P

    redi

    ct a

    nd e

    xpla

    in w

    hat w

    ill h

    appe

    n to

    the

    18O

    :16 O

    rat

    ios

    as g

    loba

    l war

    min

    g co

    ntin

    ues.

    (C

    AU

    TIO

    N:

    Oxy

    gen

    isot

    opes

    are

    sim

    ply

    a re

    cord

    , no

    t a c

    ause

    of c

    limat

    e ch

    ange

    .)

    f. D

    o yo

    u th

    ink

    the

    leve

    ls o

    f 18 O

    can

    als

    o in

    dica

    te

    the

    amou

    nt o

    f ice

    foun

    d on

    land

    ? E

    xpla

    in.

    Ext

    ensi

    on

    s1.

    Rea

    d an

    d di

    scus

    s F

    ossi

    l The

    rmom

    eter

    s fo

    r E

    arth

    s C

    limat

    e b

    y Le

    ar e

    t al.,

    from

    the

    OD

    P

    Hig

    hlig

    hts

    (ww

    w.o

    cean

    drill

    ing.

    org/

    grea

    test

    _hits

    2/).

    2. R

    esea

    rch

    and

    exam

    ine

    glob

    al te

    mpe

    ratu

    res

    for

    the

    past

    160

    ,000

    yea

    rs a

    nd s

    ee h

    ow te

    mpe

    ratu

    res

    rela

    te to

    the

    18O

    :16 O

    rat

    ios

    for

    the

    glac

    ial a

    nd n

    on-

    glac

    ial p

    erio

    ds.

    3. R

    esea

    rch

    and

    desc

    ribe

    mod

    ern

    and/

    or fo

    ssil

    fora

    min

    ifera

    , the

    org

    anis

    ms

    used

    in o

    xyge

    n is

    otop

    e st

    udie

    s.

    4. W

    ould

    you

    exp

    ect h

    igh

    or lo

    w 1

    8 O:1

    6 O r

    atio

    s in

    ic

    e co

    res?

    Inve

    stig

    ate

    and

    trac

    k do

    wn

    an a

    nsw

    er.

    Ref

    eren

    ces

    Ken

    nett,

    Jam

    es, 1

    995.

    Lat

    est Q

    uate

    rnar

    y B

    enth

    ic

    Oxy

    gen

    and

    Car

    bon

    Isot

    ope

    Str

    atig

    raph

    y: H

    ole

    893A

    , S

    anta

    Bar

    bara

    , Cal

    iforn

    ia. P

    roce

    edin

    gs o

    f the

    Oce

    an

    Dril

    ling

    Pro

    gram

    Sci

    entifi

    c R

    esul

    ts, v

    . 14

    6, 1

    6pp.

    The

    Sec

    rets

    of t

    he S

    edim

    ents

    - T

    each

    ers

    Gui

    de is

    av

    aila

    ble

    for

    dow

    nloa

    d at

    ww

    w.o

    cean

    lead

    ersh

    ip.o

    rg/

    mat

    eria

    ls/a

    ctiv

    ities

    Act

    ivity

    writ

    ten

    on th

    e S

    choo

    l of R

    ock

    Exp

    editi

    on b

    y R

    amon

    a S

    mith

    , 11/

    2005

    ( fo

    r m

    ore

    info

    rmat

    ion

    cont

    act:

    lear

    ning

    @oc

    eanl

    eade

    rshi

    p.or

    g)

    We

    d lik

    e to

    hea

    r fr

    om y

    ou! P

    leas

    e co

    ntac

    t us

    with

    que

    stio

    ns o

    r co

    m-

    men

    ts. V

    isit

    ww

    w.d

    eepe

    arth

    acad

    emy.

    org

    for

    mor

    e ed

    ucat

    ion

    mat

    eria

    ls

    and

    reso

    urce

    s.

    D

    eep

    Ear

    th A

    cad

    emy,

    120

    1 N

    ew Y

    ork

    Ave

    nue,

    NW

    , Sui

    te 4

    00,

    Was

    hing

    ton,

    DC

    200

    05; l

    earn

    ing@

    ocea

    nlea

    ders

    hip.

    org

    Cre

    dits

    : Des

    ign

    - D

    ylan

    Sul

    livan

    , Mat

    thew

    Nie

    mitz

    ; Writ

    ing

    - N

    ancy

    F

    elix

    , Les

    lie P

    eart

    , Dr.

    Mar

    k Le

    ckie

    , Dr.

    Kris

    ten

    St.

    John

    , Jer

    ry C

    ook,

    V

    irgin

    ia J

    ones

    , and

    Ram

    ona

    Sm

    ith; *

    Pho

    tos

    - S

    mea

    r sl

    ides

    - 2

    005

    Sch

    ool o

    f Roc

    k P

    artic

    ipan

    ts, T

    hin

    Sec

    tions

    - M

    . Lec

    kie

    Cop

    yrig

    ht

    200

    8 C

    onso

    rtiu

    m fo

    r O

    cean

    Lea

    ders

    hip.

    All

    right

    s re

    -se

    rved

    . Edu

    catio

    nal i

    nstit

    utio

    ns m

    ay d

    uplic

    ate

    port

    ions

    of t

    his

    post

    er

    for

    use

    with

    thei

    r st

    uden

    ts.

    Intr

    od

    uct

    ion

    fo

    r Te

    ach

    er

    Thi

    s po

    ster

    was

    des

    igne

    d fo

    r m

    iddl

    e an

    d hi

    gh s

    choo

    l Ear

    th s

    yste

    ms,

    life

    sci

    ence

    , ch

    emis

    try,

    and

    /or

    envi

    ronm

    enta

    l sci

    ence

    stu

    dent

    s. W

    hile

    M

    icro

    foss

    ils R

    evea

    l Sea

    floor

    S

    prea

    ding

    Tru

    th!

    and

    S

    ecre

    ts o

    f the

    Sed

    imen

    ts

    are

    a bi

    t cha

    lleng

    ing,

    the

    activ

    ities

    in

    S

    mal

    l Cre

    atur

    es, B

    ig S

    cien

    ce

    are

    adap

    tabl

    e fo

    r yo

    unge

    r au

    dien

    ces.

    The

    text

    and

    ac

    tiviti

    es a

    ddre

    ss th

    e fo

    llow

    ing

    Nat

    iona

    l Sci

    ence

    Edu

    catio

    n C

    onte

    nt S

    tand

    ards

    for

    grad

    es 5

    -8 a

    nd 9

    -12:

    Sta

    ndar

    d B

    : Phy

    sica

    l Sci

    ence

    (st

    ruct

    ure

    and

    prop

    ertie

    s of

    mat

    ter)

    , S

    tand

    ard

    C: L

    ife S

    cien

    ce (

    dive

    rsity

    , bio

    logi

    cal e

    volu

    tion)

    , Sta

    ndar

    d D

    : Ear

    th a

    nd S

    pace

    S

    cien

    ce (

    Ear

    ths

    his

    tory

    ), a

    nd S

    tand

    ard

    G: H

    isto

    ry a

    nd N

    atur

    e of

    Sci

    ence

    (na

    ture

    of

    scie

    ntifi

    c kn

    owle

    dge

    and

    hist

    oric

    al p

    ersp

    ectiv

    es).

    Vis

    it w

    ww

    .oce

    anle

    ader

    ship

    .org

    /m

    ater

    ials

    /act

    iviti

    es fo

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