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A Training report On

DOORDARSHANSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the B.tech final year

Training InchargeMr. Ravinder Naithaini Sir

Under the guidance ofMr. Ravinder Naithaini Sir

Submitted by:Sandeep Verma (0806531059)

Doordarshan Prasar Bharti Broadcasting carporation of India (PBBCI) 24,Ashok Marg Hazrat Ganj Lucknow -226001

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INDEX S.NO.1) 2) 3) History Overview / Present status Base Band Communication 3.1) Modulation 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Studio Centre Mixing Amplifier Distortion Head phones / Microphone FM Transmitter Hard Disk Based Recording System Resolution CCVS TV Transmitter Antenna System Satellite communication DTH Earthing Co-Channal interface Layer Communication Protocol Design 7 9 10 10 12 13 15 18 20 21 23 24 29 30 34 35 39 40

Chapter name

Page no.5 6

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTRavinder Naithaini , Assistant Station Engineer DOORDARSHAN KENDRA LUCKNOW for his valuable guidance without which it would have been difficult for me to complete my training. I also express my gratitude to Mr. Ravinder Naithani and Mr. Rajeh Kumar, who helped me a lot in understanding the various processes and concepts involved. It was really a great experience working in the DD Kendra and learning from such experienced engineers with hands on experience on the subject.

At the very beginning I would like to thank DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, LUCKNOW and all the employees of DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, LUCKNOW, by whose active response I was able to complete this summer vocational training. I shall be highly grateful to SHRI R. NAITHANI for rendering his valuable guidance and help to know more about facilities at DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, LUCKNOW and also in preparing this report.

I am very thankful to Sh. V.B. Patel , Sh. S.N. Yadav , Sh. Tarun Saxena , Sh. Manoj Gupta , Sh. D.P. Singh, Sh Soman Ghosh ,Sh. Brijesh Srivastava , Sh. Harsh Ojha , Smt . Anju Srivastava ,Sh. G.D. Mishra , Sh. N.K. Bhatt , Sh. A.K. Dubey , Smt.Kaveri Basu , Sh. Rohit Bhatt , Sh. S.P. Kanchan , Sh. Kamal Patel , Sh. Sumanto Gupta , Sh. Raju Bhatnagar , Smt. Ira Upreti ,Smt. Meena Verma , Sh. Sudhir Nigam , Sh. P.P. Singh for providing their immense help and suggestions.

SANDEEP VERMA B.TECH 3rd YEAR B.S.A.COLLEGE OF ENGG. & TECH. MATHURA

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CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that SANDEEP VERMA S/O Shri. SRI RAM VERMA, B. Tech 3rd year (ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION) of B.S.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, MATHURA (U.P.) has completed his FOUR weeks of summer training under my guidance from JUNE 23rd 2011 TO JULY 21st 2011 from DOORDARSHAN KENDRA 24 , ASHOK MARG LUCKNOW(U.P.) His performance and conduct during the above period was found disciplined and well mannered. This training is under the curriculum of the college/institute of study and is further evaluated by the college/institute for awarding grade/marks.

Date: ...../......./........ Place: LUCKNOW

Sh. R. NAITHANI TRAINING CO-ORDINATOR

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HISTORY Lucknow Doordarshan started functioning on 27th Nov. 1975 with an interim setup at 22, Ashok Marg, Lucknow. The colour transmission service of National Channel (only with Transmitter) started from 15-8-82. While the regular colour transmission service from studio was started in 1984 with ENG gadgets. During Reliance Cup, OB Van came to Kendra for outdoor telecast having 4 colour camera chain, recording equipments, portable microwave link. In March 1989 new studio complex started functioning. EFP Van came to DDK Lucknow in 1989 with compliment of 3 colour camera chain and recording setup for outdoor telecast. The entire recording of studio/van have been replaced to Beta format High Band edit VCR and still in use as the old recording are on H.B. UP Regional Service telecast with uplinking facility from studio (DDK, Lucknow) started in January 1998 on INSAT-2B. This service was changed to INSAT-2D (T) ARAB SAT. on 14-7-98. The news feeds are up-linked to Delhi ocassionally from Lucknow Earth Station. Studio programme is transmitted from 10 KW-TV transmitter installed at Hardoi Road through Studio Transmitter Microwave Link. Besides this, one 16 feet PDA is being installed at TV Transmitter site to receive the down link signal of Regional Service telecast from studio via ARAB SAT. on INSAT-2D (T). Site of 22 Ashok Marg, Lucknow is being utilized by Doordarshan Training Institute (for staff training) having one studio (12m x 6m) and colour camera chain. The DTI Lucknow was inaugurated in September 1995.

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An OverviewDoordarshan Kendra Jaipur is part of the DD India, the largesttelevision network in the world. The first television programmewas viewed by the people of Rajasthan on 1st August,1975 underthe satellite Instructional Television Experiment in the districts of Kota, Sawai Madhopur & Jaipur. Special educational programmed were then produced at Delhi on 1st March,1977, UpgrahDoordarshan Kendra was set up at Delhi. The programmes produced at UDK for Jaipur were relayed. On 1st June 1987 Jaipur Doordarshan Kendra was set up at Jhalana Doongri and transmission started on 6th July 1987. Initially the Kendra produced only 30 min of programming and this was gradually increased to about 4 hrs. From 2nd Oct 1993 the LPTs located atAjmer, Udaipur and Bikaner and HPT at Bundi were connected with DDK Jaipur via satellite. Doordarshan introduced commerc ialservice at Jaipur Kendra on 11th Dec 1993.

PRESENT STATUSDoordarshan Jaipur is the only Programme Production Center inthe Rajasthan. The studies are housed at Jhala Doongri, Jaipur andthe transmitter is located at Nahargarh Fort. As per the census figures of 2001, the channel covers 79% by population and 72% by area of Rajasthan. On 1 May 1995 telecast of DD2 programmes commenced from Jaipur using a 100W LPT. Now DD2converted as DD NEWS is being telecast from a 10KW HPT set up in 2000. The reach of the NEWS channel is 11% by area and 32%by population. There are 47.58% snf 35.83% cables homes inUrban Rajasthan and 25.69% TV, 7% cables homes in Rural Rajasthan. Presently this Kendra originates over 4hrs of daily programming(25hrs & 30 mins Weekly) in Hindi & Rajasthani. Programmes are also telecast in Sindhi, Urdu, English & Sanskrit. This Kendra originates to News bulletins daily 1 in hindi & 1 in Rajasthani and feeds important stories for the national bulletins including regular contribution in Rajyon Se Samachar at 1740 hrs daily on DD NEWS.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF TRANSMITTING FACILITIES AT DDK, JAIPUR:Doordarshan Kendra, Jaipur is equipped with studio, two terrestrial transmitters and one digital up-link station. The two terrestrial transmitters are of 10 KW power each. One is for DDNational and the other is for DD-News telecasting.

TERRESTRIAL TRANSMITTER PARAMETERS:DD-NEWS :CH #31 (VHF-Band-III) Pictures IF: 551.25 MHz, Sound IF: 556.75 MHz DOWNLINK PARAMETERS OF DD-NEWS SATELLITE PROGRAMMES Satellite Position 93.5 degree Satellite Insat 3A Transponder Uplink Frequency 6165.5 MHz (Horizontal) Downlink Frequency 3940.5 MHz (Vertical) Modulation QPSK FEC Symbol rate 6.25 Mps Azimuth Angle 144.32 degree Elevation Angle 52.33 degree

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Technical OverviewDDK Jaipur has the following main departments which manage the production,storage transmission and maintenance of the two DD National channels and the DD Rajasthan channel. 1. STUDIO 2. PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM (PCR) 3. VIDEO STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION ROOM(VTR) 4. MAIN SWITCHING ROOM(MSR) 5. DIGITAL EARTH LINK STATION 6. TRANSMITTER Camera and lights and other equipment required for production of a feed. Camera control unit or CCU It is in the studio that all aspects related to the production of a video takes place. The DDK has two large studios and a small studio for news production.The PCR is where the post production activities like minor editing and management of feed during a live program takes place. The production manager sits in the PCR and directs the camera men and selects the angles sound parameters etc during the production stage in the PCR. It is in the PCR that we can control all the studio lights and all the microphones and other aspects. The PCR has a vision mixer and an audio mixer. Its working and other aspects are discussed in detail in the following pages. The PCR is where the phone in console and other systems are also kept. The VTR is the next section where copies of all programs are stored. All the programs shot in the camera are simultaneously recorded in the VTR. Also the VTR plays back all the videos as and when required. Videos of pre-recorded events are queued up in the VTR and are played back without a break. Videos of famous people and important events are stored in the central film pool.The MSR stores all the circuitry of the DDK. All the camera base units, all the vision mixer base units and all the audio processor base units are kept in MSR. The audio chain and video chain of MSR is explained in detail. The monitoring and control of all activities takes place in MSR. It is the MSR which decides what is to go in air. The MSR also performs some additional functions like logo addition etc. The next station is the earth station which has an uplink chain, simulcast transmitters, audio processors video processors, up converters, modulators etc. The earth station is in fully digital domain. The last stage is the transmitter which has the antenna and facilities for terrestrial transmission.

Baseband vs. Passband Communication Systems. MODULATIONThe process of shifting the baseband signal to passband range for transmission is known as MODULATION and the process of shifting the passband signal to baseband frequency range at the receiver is known as DEMODULATION. In modulation, one characteristic or more of a signal (generally a sinusoidal wave) known as the carrier is chan