dogs i behavior and restraint of dogs

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  • 1.Principles of Canine Behavior, Restraint and Handling

2. Patience & Wisdom 3. Canine Terminology

  • Sp.Canis Lupus Familiaris
  • Dog:Male
  • Bitch: Female
  • Sire: Father of a litter
  • Dam: Mother of a litter
  • Whelping: Giving birth

4. Evolution to Domestication

  • Direct descendent of the gray wolf
  • Behavior changed; smaller and with shorter muzzles and smaller teeth
  • Started their interactions with humans as scavengers
  • One of the most notable changes is the ability of dogs to understand, or read, human signs and behaviors, such as changes in tone or voice or pointing (wolves dont have this feature)

Evolution of the Dog 5. Evolution to Domestication

  • Modern dogs spend most of their time with humans
  • View human family as their pack
  • Need to establish pecking order within group

6. Canine Behavior

  • Submissive Behavior
    • Tail low, wagging
    • Face licking
    • Nuzzling
    • Rolling over
    • Displaying belly/groin
    • Averted gaze, crouching
    • Dog is acknowledging its lower status by showing puppy-like body language
    • * Submissive urination 7. Canine Behavior

  • Playful Behavior
    • Front legs extended
    • Chest lowered to ground
    • Rump in the air
    • Ears back
    • Yapping
    • Tail up and wagging
  • Making himself smaller and using puppy sounds less threatening 8. Canine Behavior

  • Dominant Behavior
    • Erect tail
    • Stiff-legged walk
    • Head high, ears up or back
    • Direct eye contact
    • Thinks highly of him/herself; may not acknowledge another animals (or humans) dominance

9. 10. Prelude to a Bite PRELUDE TO A DOG BITE Ears Back Lips Drawn Head & Neck Extended Up Direct Eye Contact Hackles Raised 11. Breed Considerations

  • Sometimes dog can be hard toread because of breed
    • Floppy eared dogs dont providesame ear cues as others
    • Heavy facial fur
    • Non-vocalizing dogs


  • It is the dogs perception of a situation, not the intent of the human, which determines whether a situation is potentially harmful.

American Humane Society 13. Dominance Aggression

  • Dog perceives a challenge to its social status
  • Physical restraint is seen as threat (even hugging)
  • Do not reach for the collar or reach over the head of a dominant dog
  • Problematic in clinic setting!

14. Fear Aggression

  • Dog attacks out of fear it will be harmed

15. Territorial/Possession Aggression

  • Dog will defend its territory and possessions (toys, bedding, crate, etc.)
  • Possessions can include humans

16. Approaching the animal

  • Call dog by its name, then approach from the front never sneak up on it!
  • Hand extended, palm down, fingers curled
  • Let dog sniff back of your hand
  • When shown acceptance (tail wagging, relaxed body language), scratch under the dogs ears, then its chest, neck, shoulders and hips.

17. 18. Considerations with Owners

  • If owner is holding the dog, ask him/her to place dog on the table.Do not take the dog from the owner
  • Owner should NEVER restrain animal practice is liable if animal bites owner
  • Sometimes its best if owner is not in the room

19. Special Handling Considerations

  • Puppies
  • Pregnant Bitches
  • Old dogs
  • Nervous Dogs
  • Injured Dogs 20. Handling Lifting/Carrying

  • Medium sized dogs
    • Sweep one hand and arm under the dogs head and neck
    • Slip the other arm under dogs abdomen near its hind legs
    • Using your legs (not your back), lift dog up

21. Handling Lifting/Carrying

  • Small Dogs
    • Reach one hand under head/neck and grasp collar on side opposite from you
    • With other hand, reach over dogs back and support thorax with hand and arm 22. Handling Lifting/Carrying

  • Large Dog
    • Reach one hand and arm under dogs head and neck and rest hand just below shoulder on side opposite from you
    • Wrap other hand and arm behind dogs rump and lift.Dog will assume a sitting position.

* Use this method for lifting pregnant bitches 23. Restraint Techniques

  • Standing Restraint
    • Wrap one arm around dogs neck to control head.
    • Wrap other arm under abdomen.Pull dog close to your body
  • Use this restraint for:
  • Physical exam
  • IM, SQ Injections
  • TPR
  • Expressing Anal Glands

24. Restraint Techniques

  • Sternal Restraint
    • From standing restraint, move your hand from under the abdomen to behind the stifles, and gently press the stifles forward, making the dog sit.
    • Use your body to gently push down on dogs back while pulling its front legs forward
  • Use thisrestraint for:
  • Cleaning ears
  • Applying eye meds
  • Giving oral meds

25. Restraint Techniques

  • Lateral Restraint
  • With dog in standing position, reach across its back and grab both forelimbs in one hand & both hindlegs in the other
  • Place the index finger of each hand between the 2 legs being held
  • Slowly lift dogs legs up and let its body slide against yours until it is lying laterally.

26. Restraint Techniques

  • Lateral Restraint(cont.)
  • Use forearm closest todogs head to putpressure on head tokeep dog from reaching around and biting
  • Use this restraint for:
  • Urine catheterization
  • SQ, IM injections
  • Lateral saphenous venipuncture

Important! Lift dogs forelegs slightly off the table it prevents them from trying to get up 27. Low Stress Handling

  • These short videos were created by a veterinarian who created a series of low stress methods of handling dogs and cats
  • Check it out:

28. Restraint Techniques

  • Jugular Venipuncture
  • In sternal recumbency, move the hand from under the dogs neck up to under the mandible.Curl fingers around mandible
  • Tilt dogs head back and up to expose jugular vein
  • Place other hand around shoulder of dog and lean on the animal to keep him still.Legs can also be extended over the table edge (for small breeds) 29. Restraint Techniques

  • Cephalic Venipuncture
  • Dog in sternal recumbency, keep its body close to yours
  • Encircle one arm under the dogs neck and head.
  • With the other hand, brace the dogs elbow and using the thumb on the same hand, roll the vein and occlude it for the person taking the blood

30. Restraint Techniques

  • Lateral Saphenous Venipuncture
  • With dog in lateral recumbency, the restrainer releases hind legs and uses that hand to grab and squeeze the leg just above the knee, occluding the saphenous vein

Saphenousvein 31. Restraint Equipment - Muzzles 32. Using Muzzles

  • Commercial Muzzles vs. Gauze Muzzles Do NOT use CLING 33. Commercial Muzzles

  • Purpose:to keep dog from biting
  • Different types (leather, nylon or basket) for different types of dogs
  • Proper fit is key!
  • Estimate size based on dogs muzzle 34. Applying Commercial Muzzle

  • Dog in sitting or sternal recumbency
  • Two methods of applying a muzzle:
  • If the animal is aggressive it may be easier to get the muzzle on by approaching from the rear and quickly applying the muzzle over the nose and mouth.
  • If the animal


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