document resume title unlocking the door: current ?· document resume. ed 434 315 cs 013 697....

Download DOCUMENT RESUME TITLE Unlocking the Door: Current ?· DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 434 315 CS 013 697. TITLE…

Post on 21-Jul-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • DOCUMENT RESUME

    ED 434 315 CS 013 697

    TITLE Unlocking the Door: Current Research on How Children LearnTo Read.

    INSTITUTION Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.PUB DATE 1999-00-00NOTE 28p.PUB TYPE Guides - Non-Classroom (055)EDRS PRICE MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage.DESCRIPTORS *Academic Standards; *Beginning Reading; Decoding (Reading);

    *Instructional Effectiveness; Primary Education; ProgramEffectiveness; Reading Comprehension; *Reading Instruction;*Reading Research; *State Standards; Writing Skills

    IDENTIFIERS *Alaska; Phonemic Awareness

    ABSTRACTAddressing current research on the foundational skills of

    reading for the state of Alaska, this booklet is designed to get the mostcurrent information available about how children learn to read into the handsof everyone who can help children learn and grow as readers. It outlinespreviously researched core abilities including phonemic awareness, alphabeticprinciples, sound-spelling correspondence, decoding ability, comprehensionskills, and spelling, vocabulary, and writing skills. The booklet discussesessential components of research-based programs for beginning readinginstruction and features of classrooms and schools that support effectivebeginning reading instruction. It then outlines reading performance standardsand includes a chart indicating proficiency levels for Alaska PerformanceStandards for Reading. (SC)

    ********************************************************************************

    Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be madefrom the original document.

    ********************************************************************************

  • U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice of Educational Research and ImprovementEDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION

    CENTER (ERIC)af This document has been reproduced as

    received from the person or organizationoriginating it.

    Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality.

    o Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy.

    PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE ANDDISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS

    BEEN GRANTED BY

    TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)

    14

    ..n1 kiCurrent Researchon How Children

    0 Learn to ReadBEST COPY AVM LIE

  • Unlocking the DoorCurrent Research on

    How Children Learn to Read

    QUALITYSCHOOLSINITIATIVEHigh StudentAcademicStandards BAssessments

    Family, School,Business and

    CommunityNetwork

    SchoolExcellenceStandards

    The Alaska Department of Education acknowledges the Illinois State Board of Education,the California State Department of Education and the Texas Education Agency for theirwork in compiling and publishing the material contained in this publication. The AlaskaDepartment of Education has gratefully borrowed from their work.

    3

  • UNLOCKING THE DOOR CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ

    A Message fromthe Commissioner of EducationEveryone able to read this message knows that reading is the key tosuccess in school, work and life. It opens the door to learning about otherplaces, other times, the world and ourselves. It allows us to develop theskills that enhance our lives at school, at work and at home. As a state,Alaska has adopted the goal that all children will be independent readersby the end of third grade. To reach this goal the State Board of Educationhas set state reading standards. In public school, we measure whetherstudents are meeting those standards with the Alaska BenchmarkExamination in reading at the third, sixth and eighth grades, and with theAlaska High School Graduation Qualifying Examination. Clearly, we've madereading a top priority.

    A child's right to succeed in school and in life depends on being able toread. It is the key. It our responsibility to show children the key. Schools,families, and communities share this responsibility. It will take all of usworking together to reach our goal. Our work needs to be based on thebest, most current information available about how children learn to read.This booklet, Unlocking the Door: Current Research on How Children Learnto Read, is designed to get that information into the hands of everyone whocan help our children learn and grow as readers. Helping them becomegood readers is the best gift we can give to our children.

    Their success is the best gift for the future of Alaska.

    Sincerely,

    Richard S. CrossCommissioner of Education

    4

  • UNLOCKING THE DOOR CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ

    ForewordUnlocking the Door: Current Research on How Children Learn to Readaddresses current research on the foundational skills of reading thoseskills most effectively taught during beginning reading instruction in theearly years of schooling. Intentional instruction within a comprehensivereading program during this critical period sets the stage for a lifetime ofliteracy.

    Foundational skills, though certainly essential, are not a complete pictureof effective reading instruction. Learning to apply these skills in a variety ofways begins in the early years of school and continues through high schooland beyond. Students grow as readers by using their reading skills torespond to literature, learn with textbooks, read informational materials,find and use reference materials, access electronic information, interpretvisual and graphic displays and evaluate information sources. The AlaskaContent and Performance Standards require students to apply theirreading skills in exactly these ways.

    Other components of language learning support and reinforce theacquisition of reading skills. These supporting processes include speaking,listening and writing. Unlocking the Door: Current Research on HowChildren Learn to Read addresses these components as they support theacquisition of foundational skills.

    Finally, we must pay constant attention to the contexts in which studentsread: at school, at home, in the workplace, in the community, and asindividuals in the pursuit of information or simply for pleasure. Thesecontexts supply the "where" and "why" of reading for students, giving themnot only opportunities to read, but reasons to read. Ultimately, our goal isto enable each student to become a purposeful, motivated and capablereader who can use this invaluable set of skills for a lifetime of learning andenjoyment. We need the help of all Alaskans in meeting this goal. Workingtogether, we can make a difference.

    BEST COPY AVAILABLE

  • UNLOCKING THE DOOR CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ

    6

    itBEST empv AVAu API r

  • UNLOCKING THE DOOR CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ

    Research on Reading InstructionWhat We KnowResearch over the past 30 years has shed tremendous light on how chil-dren learn to read. Certain abilities must be developed that work togetherto create strong reading skills. These core abilities include:

    Phonemic awareness - the ability to segment words and syllablesinto constituent sound units (phonemes). Some measures ofphonemic awareness include rapid naming of letters, numbers andcolors, and awareness of print as symbolic of sound. Problems withphonemic awareness are the best predictor in kindergarten or firstgrade of future reading difficulty in grade three.Instruction at an early age (kindergarten) using the following typesof phonemic awareness tasks has had a positive effect on readingacquisition and spelling for pre-readers: rhyming, auditorily discrimi-nating among sounds that are different, blending spoken sounds intowords, isolating sounds from words, deleting sounds from words andword-to-word matching.

    Alphabetic principle - recognizing the letters of the alphabet andthat written words are composed of patterns of letters that representthe sounds of spoken words. It is not simply the accuracy with whichchildren can name letters that gives them an advantage when learn-ing to read; it is also the ease with which they do so. Thus, the speedwith which children can name individual letters strongly predictssuccess for prereaders and is strongly related to reading achieve-ment among beginning readers. A child who can recognize letterswith speed and confidence will have an easier time learning aboutletter sounds and word spellings. Also, many letter names arerelated to their sounds, again making the connection between soundand print easier.

    Sound-spelling correspondence - the ability to match letters andletter combinations with sounds, and to blend sounds together intoseamless words. Direct sound-spelling instruction (phonic instruc-tion) means telling children explicitly what single sound a letter orletter combination makes. This has been proven more effective in

    7

  • UNLOCKING THE DOOR CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOW CHILDREN LEARN TO READ

    preventing reading problems than asking children to figure out sound-spelling correspondences from giving clues or using whole wordsonly. Phonemes must be separated from words for direct instruction.Later, as children learn two or three sound-letter correspondences,they should be taught how to blend the sounds into words, movingsequentially from left to right. Blending practice should use wordscomposed of only the sound-letter combinations learned that day.

    Decoding ability m the ability to identify familiar words rapidly andeffortlessly and to "figure out" words never seen before, relyingprimarily on print rather than pictures or story context. Children mustlearn effective sounding-out strategies that will allow them todecode words they have never before seen in print. Some effectiveinstructional approaches to teach decoding strategies include sound-letter practice, word families, onsets and rimes, and blending. Moreadvanced strategies focus on structural

Recommended

View more >