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  • ED 298 066

    AUTHORTITLE

    SPONS AGENCY

    PUB DATENOTE

    PUB TYPE

    EDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORS

    ABSTRACT

    DOCUMENT RESUME

    SO 019 460

    Morgan, Jack C.; Banaszak, Ronald A.The Relationship between Economics and Civics inEconomic Textbooks and Civics Curriculum Guides.Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco,Calif.Apr 8831p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of theAmerican Educational Research Association (NewOrleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988).Reports - Research/Technical (143)Speeches /Conference Papers (150)

    MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage.MCivics; *Content Analysis; *Curriculum Guides;*Economics; Economics Education; EducationalResearch; Instruction; *Integrated Activities;Material Development; Research Projects; SecondaryEducation; Social Studies; State Curriculum Guides;Teaching Methods; *Textbook Content; Textbooks

    This research project analyzes the civics content insix secondary economics textbooks and the economics content in 25state and local civics curriculum guides in order to determineintegration patterns. The report also contains information aboutpotential content integration topics, appropriate teachingstrategies, and implications for materials development. Integratedeconomics and civics curriculum suggestions include: (1) tracingeconomic, political, and social roles of young adults; (2) usingdecision-making models; (3) adapting a chronological or topicalteaching approach within the context of U.S. economic and politicalhistory; (4) using case studies that relate economics to civics; (5)actively involving students in a study of their community, state, orthe United States; and (6) developing the curriculum around a fewspecific themes. Appendices include: (1) a bibliography of theanalyzed economics textbooks; (2) the economics textbook and thecivics curriculum guide evaluation forms; and (3) a list of thestates and local school districts whose curriculum guides wereanalyzed. Nine tables are included. (JHP)

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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

    ECONOMICS AND CIVICS

    IN ECONOMIC TEXTBOOKS AND

    CIVICS CURRICULUM GUIDES

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  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

    ECONOMICS AND CIVICS

    IN ECONOMIC TEXTBOOKS AND

    CIVICS CURRICULUM GUIDES

    Jack C. MorganUniversity of L6uisville and

    Kentucky Council on Economic Education

    Ronald A. BanaszakFoundation for Teaching Economics

    Paper Presented at

    American Educational Research AssociationAnnual MeetingNew Orleans

    1988

    Research conducted under a grant from the

    FOUNDATION FOR TEACHING ECONOMICS550 Kearny Street - Suite 1000

    San Francisco, CA 94108

    3

  • THE RELATIONSHIP BEIWEEN BCONOMICS AND CIVICSIN ECONOMIC TEXTBOOKS AND CIVICS CURRICULUM JIDES

    The Foundation for Teaching Economics is the nation's leading proponent ofeconomic education in grades 7-10. Established in 1975, the FTE has pion-eered innovative approaches to teaching young adolescents how America'seconomic system works. As part of this effort the FTE has participated inthe development of a variety of student instructional materials, outreachprojects to school districts and research.

    As FTE began its second decade in 1986, its Trustees and staff conducted athorough evaluation of its objectives and past programs in order to estab-lish a strategic plan to guide its future activities. As a result of thatplanning process, the FTE reaffirmed its commitment to develop innovativeinstructional materials especially apprrpriate for young adolescents. Inaddition to creating materials for a on_ semester economic course and for asubstantial economics unit in another social Ptadies course, the FTE willcreate both basal and supplementary materials for other commonly tzughtsocial studies courses.

    Civics is the first traditional social studies course to be targeted for amajor FTE naterials development effort. The FTE proposes to develop a var-iety of materials, including a civics textbook, that will provide a means tointegrate the study of economics into theivics course. The ConstitutionalRights Foundatior, a 25-year old law-related education organization, hasjoined with the FTE in this effort. Several factors contributed to focusingon the civics course. Civics is commonly viewed as a government coursc, yetit is difficult to study the government without some study of the economy.In addition, some states; most notably North Carolina, have begun to requireeconomics instruction in the civics course and publishers of civics text-books are including economic units in their books.

    Before committing itself to this major new effort, the FTE commissionedseveral studies relating to civics and economics instruction. Since text-books are so important in shaping classroom instruction, Dr. Jack Morgan,Executive Director of the Kentucky Council on Economic Education, was giventwo research grants by the FTE to analyze the civics content of economicstextbooks and to analyze civics curriculum guides to determine what economiccontent, if any, is being recommended to school districts. These studieswere designed to provide more precise information to guide the ETE's mater-ials development effort. The rest of this paper reports on these two stud-ies.

    2 4

  • CIVICS CONTENT IN SELECTED ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS

    Procedures

    This study analyzed the civics content in six well-known secondary economicstextbooks. Each textbook was independently analyzed by Dr. Morgan and threehigh school economics and civics teachers, one in Kentucky and two in Cali-fornia. Analysis was conducted using the Economics Textbook Analysis F9rm,a modification of the Civics Textbook Analysis Form developed by Davis.The topics of analysis listed on the form were created by a team of socialstudies educators including Dr. Morgan, Dr. Ronald A. Banaszak, Vice Presi-dent of Educational Programs et the FIE and Dr. James E. Davis, then VicePresident for Program Developient at the FTE. Dr. Morgan met with each ofthe teachers to discuss their ratings of each text. Variations in ratingswere handled in ways described in each of the following sections. AppendixA lists the six textbooks used in this study and Appendix B contains a copyof the Economics Textbook Analysis Form. Unfortunately reviewers inadver-tently analyzed two editions of The American Economic SystemFree Enter-prise (1981, 1987). After comparison of the two editions by Dr. Morgan andthe teacher reviewers, it was agreed that these editions were not suffi-ciently different to change the results.

    Results of Analysis

    Physical Characteristics of Textbooks

    Each of the textbooks was published in hardcover. Table 1 summarizes thephysical characteristics of the books. The estimated average number ofpages dealing with civics/legal content was 47.3 pages or 11 percent of theaverage textbook of 419 pages. The median number of units for the books wassix. One textbook, however, Cur Economy: How It Works was not divided intounits. The median number of chapters was 19.5. Publication information forall the texts can be found in Appendix A.

    3 5

  • Table 1

    PAGES, CHAPTERS AND UNITS FOR ECONOMICS TEXTS

    Number ofPages ofCivics/Legal Number of Number of

    No. of Total Pages Content Chapters Units

    Range 320-580 22-62 8-46 0-8

    Mean 419 47.3 23.5 5.2

    Analysis of Content

    Most of the textbook analysis was directed at discovering the nature andextent of civics content in the textbooks and the appropriateness of teach-ing strategies for young adolescents.

    When considering what civics content to include in a textbook that inte-grates civics and economics, special consideration must be given to the mostfrequently occurring content in current economics textbooks. This contentrepresents what is most successful at the present time. To be a part ofthis market, a future textbook cannot depart far from the mainstream.

    The frequency of occurrence of Civics/Legal content in the textbooks issummarized in Table 2. (See Economics Textbook Analysis Form in Appendix Bfor a list of content categories.) All six books included some informationfalling under the categories of Why Government," "Executive Agencies,""Paying for National Government" and "Government and the Economy." Thecategories "Why Government" and "Paying for National Government" werecovered in depth in five books while "Government and the Economy" wascovered in all six books. None of the books treated "Executive Agencies" indepth. Information about "Why Government" usually included a positive,economic justification for the existence of the government. The textbooksconsidered "Executive Agencies" at different places throughout the book whende

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