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    McCune, Shirley D.Guide to Strategic Planning for Educators.Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment, Alexandria, Va.ISBN-0-87120-140-28692p.Publication Sales, Association for Supervision andCurriculum Development, 125 North West Street,Alexandria, VA 22314 (St.ock No. 611-86044; $6.00).Guides - Non-Classroom Use (055) -- ReportsDescriptive (141)

    EDRS PRICE MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.DESCRIPTORS Decentralization; *Demography; Economic Factors;

    *Educational Planning; Elementary SecondaryEducation; Employment Patterns; FamilyCharacteristics; Futures (of Society); *LeadershipResponsibility; Planning; *Problem Solving;*Technological Advancement

    IDENTIFIERS *information Society; *Strategic Planning

    ABSTRACTThe industrial age is giving way to a new society, an

    information age first_seen in_the economic_sector and nowtransforming U.S. social, political, organizational, and personallives..Educational institutions must reorganize to meet the changingconditions of this new society. To help schools with strategicplanning efforts, the three chapters of this publication explore thecontent, the process, and the leadership_capabilities involved. Thefirst chapter examines the forces affecting education, includingeconomic_restructuring factors: the nature of work, the power drivingsociety (technology), the global economy, employment patterns, andwork force composition._Demographic shifts (aging populations, racialand ethnic factors, family patterns, and sex roles) andorganizational changes are also examined. Chapter 2 describes thestrategic planning process and_how it can address these conditions.Chapter 3 examines the leadership dimension_of strategic planning,including four major elements that can significantly improve mostdistricts' management systems: (1) information systems fordecision-making, (2) a common sense of direction, (3) stakeholderparticipation, and (4) linkages among units. The chapter closes bylisting characteristics of effective leaders. Included are severalfigures and 21 references. Appendices include an outline of probabledirections for educational restructuring, external and internalscanning checklists, a pattern analysis of national planningassumptions, and an example of data analysis. (MLH)

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  • Guide to StratePlanning forEducators

    Shirley D. McCune


    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Develop ent125 North West Street

    Alexandria, VA 22314-2798(703) 549-9110

  • Shirley D. McCune is Regional Director, Mid-continentRegional Educational Laboratory, 12500 E. Iliff Aye.,Suite 201, Aurora, CO 80014.

    Ronald S. Brandt, Executive EditorNancy Carter Modrak, Manager of PublicationsFran R. Cohen, Managing EditorJanet Frymoyer, Production CoordinatorAl Way, Art Director

    Copyright 1986 by the Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or trans-mitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, with-out permission in writing from the publisher.

    ASCD publications present a variety of viewpoints. The views expressed orimplied in this publication are not necessarily official positions of theAssociation.

    Price: $6.00ASCD Stock Number: 611-86044ISBN: 0-87120440-2Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-71841

    December 1986

  • ContentsIntroduction

    1. The Context for Strategic Planning 1Forces Affecting Educational Systems 1The Direction of Change 26

    2. Strategic Planning in Education 31Definitions of Strategic Planning 32The Phases of Strategic Planning 37

    Strategic Management and Leadership .. ..... ........ , 55An Organizational Development Tool 55Leadership: Requirement and Opportunity

    = 62

    Appendix A. Probable Directions for EducationalRestructuring ___ ....... ... . . ..... . . .... 66

    Appendix B. External Scanning Data Checklist ..... 70Appendix C. Pattern Analysis: National Planning

    Assumptions 75Appendix D. Internal Scanning Data Checklist 77Appendix E. Example of Data Analysis 81

    Notes 83

    Bibliography 85

  • IntroductionToday we find ourselves in a world of transition. The industrial

    age, during which the United States grew into a strong, affluent worldpower, is drawing to a close. A new society, the information age, con-tinues to move powerfully into place. This transformation, first seenin the economic sector of our society, is now visible in our social, po-litical, organizational, and personal lives.

    Despite the changes evident in every sector, we are still sufferingfrom the human problems of reorienting and reorganizing our insti-tutions, our activities, and our lives to meet the challenges and changedconditions of our new society. History suggests that it is difficult forany civilization that excelled in one age to maintain its achievementsunder a new set of conditions. Our tendency is to stick with the thingsthat worked in the past in the hope that they will eventually workagain.

    This is a particularly frustrating time for educational institutions.On the one hand, society is paying more attention to education's needsand beginning to provide resources aimed at improving its effective-ness. On the other hand, an awareness is slowly developing that thenature of the progress to date is unlikely to keep up with the largerchanges in society. Broader questions are being raised about what isneeded.

    Given the changes in the larger society, what knowledge, skills,and competencies are children going to need to participate fully in thefuture? What should be the role of schools in meeting the larger societalneeds of the present and future?

    This book describes a process particularly suited to address thoseissuessbutegic planning. This creative management process is pow-ered by the basic human drive to solve problemsto eliminate dis-crepancies between what is and what must be. A primary value ofstrategic planning is that it forces people and institutions to reexamine,to refocus, and to seek out or create new means for accomplishing theirpurposes.

    There is nothing magical about the strategic planning process,however. It takes its meaning and value from the context in which it'sapplied. This book, therefore, first explores that contextthe economic,demographic, political, social, educational, and technological changesin the environment that already are affecting our schools.

    Chapter 2 describes the strategic planning process and how it canaddress these conditions. The final chapter, "Strategic Management


    and Leadership," explores the compatibility of the strategic planningprocess with new forms of educational management, and its role increating and supporting the leadership needed to address the future.

    Underlying each chapter is the belief that "fixing" or improvingschools in accord with outmoded images of what is possible is unlikelyto push education far or fast enough. The task confronting educatorsand society is to restructure schools and to develop organizations that"match" the changing conditions of a changing society. "Restructuring"is not used here as a synonym for "improvement," although they areclosely linked ends of the same process. Improvement focuses on bet-tering the state of the art, finding more eifective means to relativelyunchanging ends. Restructuring, because it is a response to changesin the external environment already affecting schools, allows for sig-nificant shifts away from what has been done in the past. It may includepossibilities not derived from past experience; for example, changes inthe goals of educational programs, the methods of delivering services,the clients to be served, management structures, evaluation and ac-countability procedures, financing, and community outreach and re-lationships.

    The starting point for restructuring is an examination of what haschanged and the identification of possibilities. Strategic planning pro-vides an effective process for undertaking that task. It begins with anunderstanding of the economic, demoglaphic, political, social, educa-tional, and tezhnological changes in the environment and how theyaffect schools. The following section outlines some of the forces affectingeducational systemsforces schools must address if they are to remainproductive and strong.



  • Chapter 1



    Wander ng between two worlds,one dead,

    The other powerless to be born."Matthew Arnold

    Forces Affecting Educational SystemsChange, at an ever-increasing rate, is characteristic of our society.

    A child entering school today comes from a world significantly differentfrom the one that shaped many of the beliefs and assumptions of


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