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    95 UD 014 207

    Batlle, Ana; And OthersThe Puerto Ricans: A Resource Unit for Teachers.B'nai B'rith, New York, N.Y. Anti-DefamationLeague.Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C.ADLBB-RU-972OEG-070-208765p.Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 315 LexingtonAvenue, New York, N.Y. 10061 ($1.25)

    MF-$0.75 11C-$3.15 PLUS POSTAGEAcculturation; American History; Bias; CulturalBackground; Curriculum Development; *Ethnic Studies;Family Characteristics; *Migrant Child Education;*Migrant Problems; Migration Patterns; Puerto RicanCulture; *Puerto Ricans; Resource Guides; *ResourceUnits; Values

    ABSTRACTThe contents of this resource unit, which aims to

    present the Puerto Rican on the continent as he really is--hisbackground, his attributes, his problems, his goals--so we may betterunderstand and respect him, are organized in five chapters, asfollows. Chapter 1, "Background of the Puerto Rican," discusses thegeography of Puerto Rico, the history of Puerto Rico over the lastfour centuries, and the present status of Puerto Rico. Chapter 2,"The Puerto Rico Migration to the-Continent," discusses thecharacteristics of the migrant population and the motivation of thePuerto Rican migration, which is considered to be primarily economic.Chapter 3, "The Puerto Rican Minority on the Continent," discusses"Puerto Rican Immigrant Problems," "The Puerto Rican as a VisibleMinority," and, "Generational Differences and Resulting Problems."Chapter 4, "The Puerto Rican Family," discusses "The ExtendedFamily," "Effects of Family Values on Puerto Ricans," "CulturalValues," "Social Involvement," and, "Political Involvement." Chapter5, "The Puerto Rican Student in Continental Schools," discusses"Needs of the Puerto Rican Student," "Instructional Programs," and"Educational Practices." Also included are a Bibliography, anannotated list of relevant Audio Visual Material, and a list ofSources of Information, resources for future investigation and study.(Author/JM)

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    Published by the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai F3'rith.



    THE PUERTO RICANS:A RESOURCE UNIT FOR TEACHERS. Prepared by Ana BatI16,Lydia Carcino, Eliezer Rodriguez, Ramona Rodriguez and Eleanor Sandstrom

  • This manual has been prepared, printed,and distributed by the school district ofPhiladelphia and the Anti-DefamationLeague of 13'nai R'rith under grant#UEG-070-2087. Requests for informationconcerning this or other material shouldbe addressed 10 the school district ofPhiladelphia or the Anti-DefamationLeague of B'nai 13'rith.

    The project. presented or reported hereinwas performed pursuant to a grant fromthe U.S. Office of Education, Departmentof Health, Education 6 Welfare. ilowevel;the opinions expressed herein do notnecessarily reflect the position or the policyof the U.S. Office of Education, and noofficial endorsement of the U.S. Office ofEducation should be inferred.

  • Preface

    The essentials of good teaching arc twofold:. knowledge ofone's subject and the ability to communicate it; and knowledgeof one's students and the ability to reach them. This publicationis concerned with both points. It is designed to provide theteacher with information which will enable him to relate to thePuerto Rican student in the classroom, and to impart informa-tion to the non-Puerto Rican student about an important minor-ity group which not only holds a unique place in Americansociety but which significantly contributes to our culturaldiversity.

    For the Puerto Rican student especially, if he is to achieve,if he is to experience success, and if he is to feel a measure ofsecurity in the classroom, the teacher must be both knowledge-able and aware of what is special about his background. Theteacher then must be familiar With the values and cultural pat-terns of the Puerto Rican student, his immediate environmentand life-style, and the current influences which affect hisexistence.

    This Resource Unit, hopefully, will help to achieve this goal.

  • This publication is issuedas part of the observance of the

    60th Anniversaryof the

    Anti-Defamation Leagueof B'nai B'rith

  • Table of ContentIntroduction Who Is The Puerto Rican....

    Chapter / Background of the Puerto RicanGeographyHistoryPuerto Rico Today



    Chapter // The Puerto Rican Migration to the Continent _ , 25Who Comes?Why Do They Come?

    Chapter III The Puerto Rican Minority on the Continent._ ..30Puerto Rican Immigrant ProblemsThe Puerto Rican as a Visible MinorityGenerational Differences and Resulting Problems

    Chapter IV

    Chapter V

    The Puerto Rican FamilyThe Extended FamilyEffects of Family Values on Puerto RicansCultural ValuesSocial InvolvementPolitical Involvement


    The Puerto Rican Student in Continental Schools 50Needs of the Puerto Rican StudentInstructional ProgramsEducational Practices

    Bibliography 58

    Audio Visual Material 61

    Sources of Information 64

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    Who is the Puerto Rican? What is he? Before we can answerthese questions we have to ask, "Which Puerto Rican are youtalking about? The one on the island or the one on the conti-nent?" More than an ocean divides them.

    The Puerto Rican on the island need not remind himselfwho he is or where he comes from. He is one among others likehimself who share a common history and culture. His historyreaches back across several centuries to the first-known Indiancivilizations in America. For over 300 years his homeland wasone of the most important colonies of the Spanish Empire in theNew World. Today, he is a citizen of the Commonwealth of PuertoRico which, since 1952, has been a free associated state of theUnited StateS. He is endowed with a rich heritage of three motherculturesthe Indian, the Spanish, and the African. On the island,among fellow Puerto Ricans, he is a member of the majority. Heenjoys the ease and familiarity of his surroundings and commu-nity, secure in the knowledge of its.customs and traditions.

    On the continent, this same Puerto Rican suddenly findshimself one of a minority. Legally he does not come to the United

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    States as an immigrant he is a full-fledged American citizenand can pass from the island to the continent as easily as onecrosses a state line. But his language, customs, and values are"different" from those of other Americans. Like the immigrantgroups that preceded him, he comes looking for new economicopportunities, a better life. He faces similar problemslearningEnglish, adapting to American ways, and gaining acceptancefrom those outside his group who often view him as "undesir-able" and "inferior."

    On the continent, the Puerto Rican must adjust not only toa new culture but to a new environment. A move to the conti-nent usually means a move to big cities, where jobs are available.While some recent Puerto Rican migrants have lived in an urbansetting on the island, the majority come from rural areas. Life ina large metropolis like New York presents new and difficultproblems. Moreover; the Puerto Rican is accustomed to living ina tropical climate and .must adjust to the cold temperatures ofNorth America.

    In addition, the Puerto Rican on the continent is faced witha difficulty that few previous newcomers were forced to con-front: racial ambiguity. The racial prejudice that exists in theUnited States surprises him. On the island, he has lived withinnocence and naivet regarding racial differences. Now he findshimself face to face with the brutal reality of racism. He realizesthat he is socially unacceptable here either as white or black. Toadd to his confusion, social agencies often classify him as "Other."

    The Puerto Rican on the continent, then, often finds him-self an outsider. His language and customs are different. He facesa new environment. He is confused about his racial identity andcontends with discrimination from whites and, in some cases,blacks.

    As in every other society, there are those who are lessaggressive and who are defeated by their problems. In thisgroup are the welfare recipients and the school and social drop-

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    outs. Yet, despite the multiple problems faced by Puerto Ricannewcomers to the continent, many have overcome their diffi-culties, worked hard and with dignity, raised families, and per-manently established themselves in new communities. At thesame time, we find Puerto Ricans struggling to maintain theirtraditions, their culture, language and customs, fighting againstbeing absorbed by the existing continental culture.

    This resource unit aims to present the Puerto Rican on thecontinent as he really is his background, his attributes, hisproblems, his goalsso we may better understand and respecthim.

  • Chapter I

    Background ofthe Puerto Rican



    etween North and South America and east ofCentral America there is a vast expansion ofwater known as the Caribbean Sea. At theentrance of this sea lies Puerto Rico. It is oneof the chain of islands which range from Florida

    to the northern coast of South America and are known as theAntilles. These islands are actually the tops of mountain rangesthat rise above the Caribbean Sea. The Antilles are divided intotwo groups, called the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Puerto Ricois the smallest and easternmost of the four Greater Antilles,islands which also include Cuba, Hispaniol