djjdp’s comprehensive delinquency prevention & intervention strategy
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DESCRIPTIONDJJDP’s Comprehensive Delinquency Prevention & Intervention Strategy. The Need For a Comprehensive Strategy. Poor matching of prevention programs with risk factors for delinquency Poor targeting of serious, violent and chronic offenders Little use of risk and needs assessments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Poor matching of prevention programs with risk factors for delinquencyPoor targeting of serious, violent and chronic offendersLittle use of risk and needs assessmentsPoor matching of offenders with the level of serviceOver-use of detention and incarceration
Comprehensive Strategy for Juvenile DelinquencyProblem Behavior > Noncriminal Misbehavior > Delinquency > Serious, Violent, and Chronic OffendingPreventionTarget Population: At-Risk YouthPreventing youth from becoming delinquent by focusing preventionprograms on at-risk youthGraduated SanctionsTarget Population: Delinquent YouthImproving the juvenile justice system response to delinquent offenders through a system of graduated sanctions and a continuum of treatment alternatives>>>>>>Programs for All YouthPrograms for Youth at Greatest Risk Immediate InterventionIntermediate SanctionsCommunity ConfinementTraining Schools Aftercare
Risk and Protective Factors
This figure adds the third track in the CS--risk and protective factors, and shows the approximate order in which they come into play from the standpoint of a childs development over time. It also shows the age-related timeline along which problem behaviors develop, and the continuum of programs and strategies that is needed to effectively prevent and reduce delinquency.This figure illustrates the importance of early intervention with less costly and more effective programs. The cost to society of a delinquents criminal career that extends 10 years is from $1.7 to $2.3 million. Each year that the criminal career is reduced represents a large cost savings. The total cost of prevention and treatment court-based programs range from less than $1,000 to about $20,000. The average annual cost of incarcerating a juvenile is about $50,000. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs that succeed at least some of the time are likely to pay for themselves many times over.
Risk/protective factors in the individual, family, peer group, school, neighborhood
ConductDisorderEarlyDelinquencySerious andViolent JuvenileOffendingPreventionPreventionPreventionInterventionInterventionIntervention
Comprehensive Strategy MantraResearch-basedData-drivenOutcome-focused
Non-Serious Non-ViolentNon-Chronic64%Serious34%Chronic15%Violent8%C,S & V4%Source: Snyder (1998) Maricopa Co. Study (N=151,209)Juvenile Offender Court Careers
Authority Conflict Pathway(Before Age 12)Authority Avoidance(truancy, running away, staying out late)Minor Covert Behavior(shoplifting, frequent lying)Covert PathwayMinor Aggression(bullying, annoying others)Overt PathwayPhysical Fighting(physical fighting, gang fighting)Property Damage(vandalism, firesetting)Violence(rape, attack, strongarm)Moderate to Serious Delinquency(fraud, burglary, serious theft)Age of OnsetLate% BoysFewPathways to Boys Chronic, Serious, Violent DelinquencyEarlyMany
Developed by the Jordan Institute for Families
Risk factors, indicators, & data are accessible online: http://www.unc.edu/ncjcp/
Individual Risk FactorsBirth6711 1216Constitutional Factors Behavior problems in school Academic failure Early conduct problems Gang membership
Family Risk FactorsBirth6711 1216Prenatal factors Family management problems Parent problems Family conflict & disruption
Peer Group Risk FactorsBirth6711 1216Peer rejection Peer delinquent behavior
School-level Risk FactorsBirth6711 1216School & classroom size Disruptive school environment
Community Risk FactorsBirth6711 1216Impoverished neighborhood Community drug & alcohol use Community crime & violence Presence of gangs Availability of guns
Sample31%Offenses82%RochesterSample14%Offenses79%DenverSample15% Offenses(Robberies Only)85%SeattleSource: Thornberry, 1998
Source: Lynskey et al. (2000); NB: Ever or current members of a delinquent gang12%17%28%23%20%
Increasing SanctionsDecreasing SanctionsDiversionYouth CourtProbationIntensive PSCB Resid.Residential PlacementIntensive PSProbationGroup CounselingMentoringDay/EveReport.
Detention screening instrumentsIntake screening instrumentsResearch-based risk risk assessmentsObjective assessments of youth and family strengths and needsA placement matrix for recommending court dispositionsStandardized case plansRoutine assessment of case plan progress
DJJDP has a validated risk assessment instrumentDJJDP has a needs/strengths assessment instrumentThe JJ Reform Act provided a Disposition MatrixThe Disposition Matrix and risk assessment instrument are functioning well in guiding offender placements
A disposition matrix organizes sanctions and programs by risk level and offense severity.
It places offenders along a continuum of programs and sanctions
Research shows that a reliable risk assessment instrument predicts different recidivism rates at various risk levels.
Low risk offenders are placed in community programs with minimal supervision
Medium risk offenders are typically placed in more structured community programs with intensive probation supervision
High risk offenders may be placed in Youth Development Centers
Disposition of Court Referrals by Risk Level
Recidivism by Risk Level (percent with new court complaints)
Recidivism by Risk Level in North Carolina (percent with new court complaints)
DJJDP & JCPCs have responsibility for evaluating JCPC-funded programs
DJJDP has responsibility for identifying best practices
Most juvenile justice programs reduce recidivism--at least slightly.The most practical and cost-effective approach is to improve existing programs.This can be done by applying research-based knowledge of the features of effective programs.
Four Main Characteristics Of Effective Programs
1. The Program Type (primary intervention)
2. Supplementary Services
3. Amount of Service
4. Characteristics of Clients
What is it?
A practical method for evaluating juvenile justice and delinquency prevention programs against best practices
The SPEP provides a scheme (protocol) for assigning points to programs according to how closely their characteristics match those associated with the best outcomes in research.
How was the SPEP developed?
The SPEP contains the main features of effective evaluated programs.
Point allocations are based on research results that are standardized across studies, showing the added increment of delinquency reduction each program feature produces, on average.
It is not a whole blueprint for a program. It measures only the delinquency reduction potential a program type has, on average, based on prior research.
It will not provide a treatment plan for individual clients, only a framework within which treatment can be planned.
Primary Program Types for SPEPs(A separate SPEP for each)
Individual counselingGroup counselingFamily counselingParent training/counselingRestitutionInterpersonal skillsTutoring/remedial educationMentoringEmployment relatedDrug/alcohol therapy/counseling
Other Services that may Supplement Primary Programs
Behavior managementLife skillsIntensive supervisionCognitive behavioral
Prevention Programs: Service CategoriesEffective, and above averageParent training/counselingInterpersonal skills trainingTutoringEffective, and about averageGroup counselingDrug/alcohol therapy/counselingEmployment-relatedEffective, but below averageIndividual counselingMentoringFamily counseling
Court Supervised Delinquency Programs: Service CategoriesEffective, and above averageFamily counselingTutoringMentoringEffective, and about averageParent training/counselingInterpersonal skills trainingDrug/alcohol therapy/counselingEffective, but below averageIndividual counselingGroup counselingEmployment-relatedRestitution
Three Sets of SPEPs for the NC Juvenile Justice Continuum
Delinquency PreventionCourt Delinquency SupervisionCommitment Programming & Aftercare
Delinquency Prevention Programs
[Training or counseling without the juvenile present; may deal with child management skills, etc. or issues faced by parents in their role as parents.]
Typical programs of this type are effective, and above average
Supplementary Services (check the one most applicable) [15 max]
Tutoring or mentoring [15 pts]
None of these [0 pts]
Group counseling (juvenile) [4 pts]
Duration of Service (check one) [9 max]
% of Juveniles with 30 weeks or more:
None [0 pts]
67% [6 pts]
33% [3 pts]
100% [9 pts]
Face-to-Face Contact Days (check one) [12 max]
% of Juveniles with over 26 contact days:
None [0 pts]
67% [8 pts]
33% [4 pts]
100% [12 pts]
Risk Level for Majority of Juveniles (check one) [1 max]
Lower risk [0 pts]
Upper risk [1 pts]
Age of Juveniles (check one) [3 max]
Average 14 years old or under [3 pts]
Average 15 years old [1 pts]