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  • U.S. Department of the InteriorU.S. Geological Survey

    Data Series 667

    Dissolved Pesticides, Dissolved Organic Carbon, and Water-Quality Characteristics in Selected Idaho Streams, AprilDecember 2010

  • Dissolved Pesticides, Dissolved Organic Carbon, and Water-Quality Characteristics in Selected Idaho Streams, AprilDecember 2010

    By Timothy J. Reilly, Kelly L. Smalling, Emma R. Wilson, and William A. Battaglin

    Data Series 667

    U.S. Department of the InteriorU.S. Geological Survey

  • U.S. Department of the InteriorKEN SALAZAR, Secretary

    U.S. Geological SurveyMarcia K. McNutt, Director

    U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2012

    For more information on the USGSthe Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment, visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1888ASKUSGS.

    For an overview of USGS information products, including maps, imagery, and publications, visit http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod

    To order this and other USGS information products, visit http://store.usgs.gov

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

    Although this report is in the public domain, permission must be secured from the individual copyright owners to reproduce any copyrighted materials contained within this report.

    Suggested citation:Reilly, T.J., Smalling, K.L., Wilson, E.R., and Battaglin, W.A., 2012, Dissolved pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, and water-quality characteristics in selected Idaho streams, AprilDecember 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 667, 17 p.

  • iii

    AcknowledgmentsThe authors thank Alexandra Etheridge, Kristi Jones, Megan McWayne Holmes, James

    Orlando, Corey Sanders, and Ryan Todd of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for their many hours of field, laboratory, and database work. The authors would also like to thank Lance Steele, Prasanna Kandel, Alison Chamberlin, and Korrine Wade from the Boise State Univer-sity, Department of Biological Sciences, for their assistance collecting water samples. This project was funded by the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program and a grant from the National Science Foundation (award number DEB-0918182) to Dr. Merlin White at Boise State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boise, Idaho.

    Contents

    Abstract ...........................................................................................................................................................1Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................1

    Purpose and Scope ..............................................................................................................................2Description of Sampling Sites and Watershed Characteristics ...................................................2

    Methods of Study ...........................................................................................................................................4Watershed Delineation and Land-Use Characterization ..............................................................4Sampling Methods ................................................................................................................................4Analysis of Dissolved Pesticides .......................................................................................................4

    Instrument Calibration ................................................................................................................7Quality Assurance/Quality Control ............................................................................................7Method Detection Limits ............................................................................................................7

    Analysis of Dissolved Organic Carbon ..............................................................................................7Dissolved Pesticides in Streams .................................................................................................................7Dissolved Organic Carbon and Water-Quality Characteristics in Streams .......................................13Summary........................................................................................................................................................16References Cited..........................................................................................................................................16

  • iv

    Figures 1. Map showing location of four surface-water sampling sites and associated

    watersheds in Idaho .....................................................................................................................3 2. Maps showing crop and land-cover types for (A) Sand Run Gulch at Highway 95

    crossing near Parma (USGS station number 13210360) and (B) Ditch near Wanstad Road near Parma (USGS station number 13213008) in Idaho ..............................5

    3. Maps showing crop and land-cover types for sampling sites (A) Cottonwood Creek near Boise (USGS station number 433711116110700) and (B) Dry Creek near Bogus Basin Road near Boise (USGS station number 434006116112100) in Idaho ...........6

    Tables 1. Description of four surface-water sampling sites and associated watershed

    characteristics in Idaho ...............................................................................................................2 2. Dissolved pesticides with types, method detection limits, and instrumental

    limits of detection .........................................................................................................................8 3. Dissolved pesticide concentrations measured in surface-water samples collected

    from sampling sites on four streams in Idaho, AprilDecember 2010 ...............................10 4. Dissolved pesticides with type; detection frequency; and median, minimum, and

    maximum concentrations measured in surface-water samples collected from Sand Run Gulch at Highway 95 crossing near Parma, Idaho (USGS station number 13210360) and Ditch near Wanstad Road near Parma, Idaho (USGS station number 13213008), in Idaho, AprilDecember, 2010. ...........................................................................13

    5. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and water-quality characteristics measured in surface-water samples collected from four streams in Idaho, AprilDecember 2010 .................................................................................................................14

  • v

    Conversion Factors

    SI to Inch/Pound

    Multiply By To obtain

    Length

    centimeter (cm) 0.3937 inch (in.)millimeter (mm) 0.03937 inch (in.)meter (m) 3.281 foot (ft) kilometer (km) 0.6214 mile (mi)

    Area

    square kilometer (km2) 0.3861 square mile (mi2)

    Volume

    liter (L) 1.057 quart (qt)liter (L) 0.2642 gallon (gal)

    Mass

    gram (g) 0.03527 ounce, avoirdupois (oz)kilogram (kg) 2.205 pound, avoirdupois (lb)microgram (g) 3.527 x 10-8 ounce, avoirdupois (oz)nanogram (ng) 3.527 x 10-11 ounce, avoirdupois (oz)

    Temperature in degrees Celsius (C) may be converted to degrees Fahrenheit (F) as follows:

    F=(1.8C)+32

    Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).

    Horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83).

    Specific conductance is given in microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (S/cm at 25C).

    Concentrations of chemical constituents in water are given in milligrams per liter (mg/L), micrograms per liter (g/L), or nanograms per liter (ng/L).

  • vi

    Unit Abbreviations C Degrees Celsius

    C/min Degrees Celsius per minute

    cm3 cubic centimeters

    dd decimal degrees

    g gram

    L liter

    m meter

    mg milligrams

    mg/L milligrams per liter

    min minute

    mL milliliter

    mm millimeter

    ng/L nanograms per liter

    ng/L nanograms per microliter

    NTU Nephelometric turbidity unit

    g/kg micrograms per kilogram

    L microliter

    m micrometer

    S/cm microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius

    Acronyms DCM dichloromethane

    DOC dissolved organic carbon

    GC-EIMS gas chromatograph/election ionization mass spectrometer

    GC-ITMS gas chromatograph/ion trap mass spectrometer

    GF/F glass fiber filter

    H2SO4 sulfuric acid

    i.d. inner diameter

    KHP potassium hydrogen phthalate

    LOD limit of detection

    MDL method detection limit

    N2 nitrogen gas

    Na2SO4 sodium sulfate

  • vii

    ND not detected

    NWIS National Water-Quality Information System

    QA/QC quality assurance/quality control

    SPE solid-phase extraction

    SD standard deviation

    SIM selective ion monitoring

    SIS selective ion storage

    USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture

    USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    USGS U.S. Geological Survey

  • AbstractWater-quality samples were collected from April

    through December 2010 from four streams in Idaho and analyzed for a suite of pesticides, including fungicides, by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were collected from two agricultural and two nonagricultural (control) streams approximately biweekly from the beginning of the growing season (April) through the end of the calendar year (December). Samples were analyzed for 90 pesticides using gas chromatogr

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