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Anatomy of Pelvic Floor DysfunctionMarlene M. Corton,KEYWORDS Pelvic floor Levator ani muscles Pelvic connective tissue Ureter Retropubic space Prevesical spaceMD

NORMAL PELVIC ORGAN SUPPORT

The main support of the uterus and vagina is provided by the interaction between the levator ani (LA) muscles (Fig. 1) and the connective tissue that attaches the cervix and vagina to the pelvic walls (Fig. 2).1 The relative contribution of the connective tissue and levator ani muscles to the normal support anatomy has been the subject of controversy for more than a century.25 Consequently, many inconsistencies in terminology are found in the literature describing pelvic floor muscles and connective tissue. The information presented in this article is based on a current review of the literature.LEVATOR ANI MUSCLE SUPPORT

The LA muscles are the most important muscles in the pelvic floor and represent a critical component of pelvic organ support (see Fig. 1). The normal levators maintain a constant state of contraction, thus providing an active floor that supports the weight of the abdominopelvic contents against the forces of intra-abdominal pressure.6 This action is thought to prevent constant or excessive strain on the pelvic ligaments and fascia (Fig. 3A). The normal resting contraction of the levators is maintained by the action of type I (slow twitch) fibers, which predominate in this muscle.7 This baseline activity of the levators keeps the urogenital hiatus (UGH) closed and draws the distal parts of the urethra, vagina, and rectum toward the pubic bones. Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers allow for reflex muscle contraction elicited by sudden increases in abdominal pressure (Fig. 3B). The levators can also be voluntarily contracted as with Kegel exercises. Relaxation of the levators occurs only briefly and intermittently during the processes of evacuation (voiding, defecation) and parturition. The LA muscle is a complex unit that consists of several muscle components with different origins and insertions, and therefore, different functions. Knowing the precise

Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390 9032, USA E-mail address: marlene.corton@utsouthwestern.edu Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 36 (2009) 401419 doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2009.09.002 obgyn.theclinics.com 0889-8545/09/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Fig. 1. Inferior view of the pelvic floor. Superficial perineal muscles and perineal membrane have been removed on the left to show attachments of the levator ani (LA) muscles to distal vagina, anus, perineal body, and perineal membrane. Note the absence of direct attachments of LA to urethra. (Courtesy of Lianne Kruger Sullivan, Dallas, TX; with permission.)

attachments, function, and innervation of each LA component allows better understanding of the various clinical manifestations that may result from specific injuries (ie, anterior vaginal wall prolapse and stress urinary incontinence with injury to the pubovaginal muscle). The pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus are the three components of the muscle recognized in the Terminologia Anatomica (see Fig. 1).8 The pubococcygeus is further divided into the pubovaginalis, puboanalis, and puboperineal muscles according to fiber attachments. Because of the significant attachments of the pubococcygeus to the walls of the pelvic viscera, the term pubovisceral muscle is frequently used to describe this portion of the levator ani muscle.9,10 In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 80 nulliparous women with normal pelvic support, the subdivisions of the levator ani muscles were clearly visible on MR scans.11 The anterior ends of the pubococcygeus or pubovisceral muscle arise on either side from the inner surface of the pubic bone. The pubovaginalis refers to the medial fibers that attach to the lateral walls of the vagina. Although there are no direct attachments of the levator ani muscles to the urethra in females, those fibers of the muscle that attach to the vagina are responsible for elevating the urethra during a pelvic muscle contraction and hence may contribute to urinary continence (Fig. 4).12 The puboperinealis refers to the fibers that attach to the perineal body and draw this structure toward the pubic symphysis. The puboanalis refers to the fibers that attach to the anus at the intersphincteric groove between the internal and external anal sphincter. These fibers elevate the anus and along with the rest of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis fibers keep the UGH closed. The puborectalis fibers of the LA muscle also arise on either side from the pubic bone and form a U-shaped sling behind the anorectal junction, just above the external anal sphincter muscle. The action of the puborectalis draws the anorectal junction

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Fig. 2. Schematic representation of connective tissue support of uterus and upper two thirds of vagina. Urethra and vagina were transected just above the pelvic floor muscles. Note the continuity of the connective tissue at the level of the lower cervix. (Courtesy of Lianne Kruger Sullivan, Dallas, TX; with permission.)

toward the pubis, contributing to the anorectal angle (Fig. 3). This muscle is considered part of the anal sphincter complex; however, its role in maintenance of fecal continence remains controversial (see Pathophysiology of Anal Incontinence, Constipation, and Defecatory Dysfunction by Drs Marc R. Toglia and Evaluation and Treatment of Anal Incontinence, Constipation and Defecatory Dysfunction by Drs Tola Omotosho and Rebecca G. Rogers, also in this issue). The iliococcygeus, the most posterior and thinnest part of the levators, has a primarily supportive role. It arises laterally from the arcus tendenius levator ani (ATLA) and the ischial spines, and muscle fibers from one side join those from the opposite side at the iliococcygeal (anococcygeal) raphe and the coccyx.Levator Plate

The levator plate is the clinical term used to describe the region between the anus and the coccyx formed primarily by the insertion of the iliococcygeus muscles (iliococcy geal raphe) (see Fig. 3). This portion of the levators forms a supportive shelf upon which the rectum, the upper vagina, and the uterus rest away from the urogenital hiatus. A consequence of Berglas and Rubin13 1953 landmark radiographic levator myography study has been the prevailing theory that in women with normal support, the levator plate lies almost parallel to the horizontal plane in the standing position. A recent supine dynamic MRI study during Valsalva showed that the levator plate in women with normal support has a mean angle of 44.3 relative to a horizontal reference line.14 In this study, women with prolapse had a modest but significantly greater vertical inclination (9.1 ) of the levator plate during Valsalva compared with those with

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Fig. 3. Relationship of pelvic viscera and LA muscles at rest (A) and with increases in intraabdominal pressure (B). Note anorectal angle. (Courtesy of Lianne Kruger Sullivan, Dallas, TX; with permission.)

normal support; they also had larger levator hiatus lengths and more inferior perineal body displacements.

Levator Ani Muscle Injury

Another existing theory suggests that neuromuscular injury to the levators may lead to eventual sagging or vertical inclination of the levator plate and lengthening of the UGH.13,15 Consequently, the vaginal axis becomes more vertical and the cervix is oriented over the opened hiatus (Fig. 5). The mechanical effect of this change is to increase strain on the connective tissue ligaments and fasciae that supports the pelvic viscera. This concept does not preclude primary connective tissue damage as a potential cause of prolapse, but explains how injury to the pelvic floor muscles can eventually lead to disruption of the connective tissue component of support. However, whether vertical inclination of the levator plate or widening or lengthening of the urogenital hiatus occurs first is not known. A recent MRI study showed that 20% of primiparous women had defects in the levator ani muscles, whereas no defects were identified in nulliparous women.16 Importantly, most defects (18%) were identified in the pubovisceral portion of the levators; only 2% involved the iliococcygeal portion of the muscle, which is the portion of the muscle that forms the levator plate. It is possible that birth-related neuromuscular injury to the pubovisceral portion of the muscle eventually leads to alterations of the iliococcygeal portion, as all muscle components are interrelated and form part of the same complex unit. Further studies are needed that correlate anatomic location of the injuries with clinical manifestations later in life. Recent data obtained from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D computer models of cystocele formation support clinical findings that levator ani muscle impairment as well as connective tissue impairment play a critical role in cystocele formation.17,18

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Fig. 4. Lateral view of the pelvic sidewall and floor. Pelvic organs were transected at the level of the proximal urethra. Note the anterior vaginal wall and its connective tissue connections to the ATFP provide a tissue platform that supports the urethra. The attachments of the anterior vaginal wall to the medial portion of the levator ani muscles at this level account for elevation of the urethra with increases in intra-abdominal pressure. (Courtesy of Lianne Kruger Sullivan, Dallas, TX; with permission.)

Levator Ani Muscle Innervation

Traditionally, a dual innervation o