discrimination, diversity and equal opportunities
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Discrimination, Diversity and Equal Opportunities
Womens Average Pay as % of Mens Earnings
ARE THERE OTHER GROUPS OF WORKERS WHO YOU THINK MIGHT BE DISADVANTAGED?
The Basis for Unequal Opportunities and Disadvantage?Gender
Race and Ethnicity
What Opportunities are Unequal?EarningsOccupationalSectoralCareer developmentPromotionalInvolvement
Key IssuesWhat are the arguments against inequality and for equality of treatment?
What explains inequality at the workplace?
What steps are and can be taken to deal with inequality and develop equality?
What are the Arguments for Equality?The Business CaseBetter use of human resourcesWider customer baseWider pool for recruitmentPositive image for companyDiversity leads to innovation
What Explains Inequality at the Workplace?InequalityDiscriminationStructuralconditionsSituational centeredfactorsPerson centeredfactors
What is Discrimination?To make a distinctionFair and Unfair Distinctions
Forms of DiscriminationDirect versus Indirect
The Cause of DiscriminationDiscriminationPsychologicalpersonality typespersonal insecurities-learned behavior?PrejudiceSociologicalStereotypingGroup insecuritiesDifference in cultural normsEconomic- See structural
Structural/EconomicHuman Capital TheoryLabor market non discriminatoryIf groups are disadvantaged, it is because they are less productiveDifficult to test qualifications
SegmentationHorizontal (women in health, education, retailing)Vertical (glass ceiling issue)
Reserve armyUnemployment higher amongst ethnic minority groups
Women are less ambitious?
Women lack leadership qualities?
Women are less self confident?
Less TrainingExcluded from informal networksPoor MentoringPoor appraisal ratingsLack of family friendly practices
Removing Inequality and Ensuring EqualityEqualityat the workplaceThe State
The OrganizationThe Trade UnionThe Individual
National GovernmentsConstitutional rightsLegislation
The Organizational LevelWhat actions would you suggest an organisation should adopt to help ensure equal opportunities in general and in relation to a particular group (select one of: women, ethnic group, older workers, those with particular sexual orientation)?
The OrganizationEqual OpportunitiesManaging DiversityLiberal ApproachRadical Approach (Jewson and Mason (1986))Short Term AgendaLong Term Agenda
Equal OpportunitiesFocused on the needs of members of particular groupsTreats members of a particular group as if they all share the same characteristics and experiencesUses special initiatives to focus attention on the issues affecting particular groupsEmphasis on the more, ethical and social issuesLed mainly by HR specialists
Liberal Approach to Equal OpportunitiesAssumptionsEveryone should be able to compete freely on the basis of abilityThis could and should be achieved by procedural impartialityGoal:Equal treatmentPractical implicationsPut into place fair proceduresRemove all barriers to equal competition between groupsIndicative PracticesDevelop an equal opportunities policyEnsure all practices (e.g. recruitment/selection, reward, career-advancement) do not discriminateConsider employee friendly policies and practices
Critique of Liberal ApproachRetain assumption of existing (male) management style
Runs of risk of just paying lip service
HR job is not a line managers job
Radical Approach to Equal OpportunitiesAssumptionsThose for all group are the same (equally talented)Differences in treatment must mean discriminationGoalEqual outcomePractical implicationsDirect action needed to deliberately make sure that those form particular groups are treated equallyIndicative Practices (the short term agenda)Positive discrimination (quotas)Use of targetsRetraining managersMonitoring
Legality of positivediscrimination?
Long term agenda
Shift societal attitudesChanging socialisationShifting educational choicesProviding more welfare supportCritique of the (short term) Radical Approach
Managing DiversityRecognizes that each and every employee is uniqueAims to be inclusive by focusing on needs of all employeesValues drivenMore business-focusedMainstreamed - part of all line managers jobs
Managing DiversityIgnores real patterns and causes of discriminationContingent- business focus makes it dependent on bottom line contributionPart of everyones job/part of nobodys job: no one to champion the issues