discovery of mammalian diversity

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Discovery of Mammalian Diversity. Reeder et al., 2007. Described in 2013. Nycticebus kayan Kayan River slow loris. Bassaricyon neblion ( olinguito ). Craseonycteris thonlongyai bumble-bee bat < 2 grams. Balaenoptera musculus blue whale 200 Million grams. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Discovery of Mammalian DiversityReeder et al., 20071Described since I last taught Mammalogy (2014)Petrogale wilkinsi (Wilkins rock wallaby)

5 new species of Pithecia, includingP. rylandsi2

Craseonycteris thonlongyaibumble-bee bat< 2 grams

Balaenoptera musculusblue whale200 Million grams

Thewissen et al.1994. Science, 263:210.

Simmons et al. 2008. Nature, 451:818.


Gliding species (e.g., Petaurus breviceps)

Saltatorial species (e.g., Dipodomys ordi)4

Fossorial forms (e.g., Thomomys bottae)

Arboreal forms (e.g., Bradypus tridactylus)

Myrmecophagous forms (e.g., Orycteropus afer)5

*Hair, *sebaceous glands, *sweat glands

Four-chambered Heart

Nucleated erythrocytesAnnucleate erythrocytes

*Renal Artery and VeinOther tetrapods have a renal portal system.

*Muscularized Diaphragm

*Facial Muscles*Dorsal Pallium

Eleven Soft Anatomy Characters1) *Lactation2) Vivipary3) *Hair4) *Sweat/*Sebaceous Glands5) Endothermy6) 4-Chambered heart7) *Annucleate RBCs8) *Renal Artery9) *Muscular Diaphragm10 ) *Facial muscles11) *Dorsal Pallium expands cerebrum*Atlas/Axis Complex

*3 Ear OssiclesAncestralMammalian8 Cranial CharactersDouble occipital condyle*Atlas/Axis complex*Tympanic bone*Three ear ossicles*Dentary is only bone in mandibleSingle external narisSecondary palateRespiratory turbinatesDental Characters

5 Dental CharactersLack palatal teeth*DiphyodontThecodontHeterodontMulticuspate

Axial Skeleton7 (9)12 or 13VariableRibs only onthoracic *Extreme Regionalization*Limb Bones have Epiphyses

*Calcaneum (Heel bone)


No anterior/posterior coracoids, No interclaviclePectoral Girdle

Ancestrally, there was aninterclavicle, and both anterior and posterior coracoids.

Pelvic GirdleIlium, Ischium and Pubis fusedto form the Innominate bone.

Limbs Rotate under Body(Parasagittal posture)

4 Appendicular Skeleton Characters *Limb bones have epiphyses.


*Reduction of elements in limb girdles.

Parasagittal limb posture.