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- 1. The Structure of Modern English *
2. The Levels of Language Phonetics The physical properties of speech Phonology The study of linguistic sounds Morphology The study of word structure Syntax The study of utterance/sentence structure Text/discourse The study of higher-level structures Context The influence of situation, participants and functions 3. *The Hierarchy of Linguistic Levels 4. * 5. * is concerned with the production and reception of speech sounds, and in some ways is closer to the natural sciences (biology and physics) than to linguistics. Note also that although a great deal of phonetics is concerned with small speech sounds, there are other aspects of the physical production of language that are not made up of such small units. These include stress, including word-stress, and intonation 6. *is the study of the sounds that human beings use to communicate through language, and it is mostly concerned with individual speech sounds that follow each other in a linear fashion. * 7. * Acoustic Phonetics *is concerned with investigating how the sounds of speech are transmitted through the air between speaker and hearer. 8. * Auditory Phonetics *is concerned with how hearers receive the sounds of speech and decode (that is, understand) them. 9. * Articulatory Phonetics *Is the production end of the process how the speaker creates the sounds. Unlike the other subfields it is closer to the biological than to the physical sciences. 10. The production of human speech originates in the lungs as most human speech sounds are articulated on an outgoing breath. This process is known as the egressive pulmonary airstream mechanism. The speech sounds of most human languages are made as we breathe out. Once the air has left the lungs it travels up the trachea and leaves the body through the mouth, and sometimes also through the nose. On the way it may be modified by a number of the vocal organs. These modifications are responsible for making the EAS differently, depending on where the airflow is restricted and by how much. 11. Before the expelled gases leave the body through the mouth and nose they pass through the larynx. This is a box made of cartilage that contains two folds of flesh known as the vocal folds. The latter are joined together at the front of the larynx, at the point where the cartilage walls meet. Towards the rear of the larynx, the vocal folds are attached by muscles to the arytenoid cartilage, and this mechanism can pull them close together or keep them apart, as in quiet breathing. The vocal folds also have more specialized linguistic and musical functions, such as voicing and, related to this, the ability to change pitch when singing and to add intonation to speech. 12. Above the larynx there is a muscular tube known as the pharynx, which leads to the back of the mouth. The pharynx is able to contract, thus squeezing the airflow and causing a class of sounds. Once past the pharynx, the egressive airstream has a choice of direction. From here the air can escape through the mouth or the nasal cavity. When the sounds to be made are not nasal in tone the velum or soft palate is pulled back to make contact with the back of the pharynx, thus cutting off the nasal cavity route. A number of parts of the mouth are used to modify the sound of the passage of air: the uvulum, velum, palate, alveolum, teeth, lips and tongue. 13. * 14. * is the study of the sound system of particular human languages, including dialects and other language varieties. At this level of study it may seem to be similar to the study of phonetics because the transcription systems used are quite similar. 15. * *The difference between phonetics and phonology is that phonetics tries to get as close as possible to describing exactly what is going on in the mouth, whereas phonology is only interested in the extent to which sounds are contrastive in the language; that is, cause meaning change. This difference is analogous to the difference between studying an alphabet system and analyzing handwriting styles or fonts. 16. * (from the Greek: , phnma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances. 17. * *Minimal pairs are sets of words (often, but not only, pairs) that differ phonetically, but only in one way at a time. For example the following English words differ in only their initial consonant: pot, tot, cot, hot 18. * pot, tot, cot, hot *This set of words provides evidence that the sounds /p/, /t/, /k/ and /h/ are phonemes of English, because it makes a difference which one you say in the identical context of the vowel // followed by a /t/. The similarity in their pronunciation is evident in the spelling as well as the transcription, but more complex words do not have straightforward spellings in English and transcriptions are needed to show that the words are indeed minimally different. 19. * is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme. For example, [p] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language. Although a phoneme's allophones are all alternative pronunciations for a phoneme, the specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable. 20. * is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers. Ex. Economics Finance 21. * *One consequence of putting phonemes together in close proximity is that they sometimes become more like each other than they would be in isolation. 22. * *One consequence of putting phonemes together in close proximity is that they sometimes become more like each other than they would be in isolation. *It is either anticipatory (also called regressive) or retrospective (also called progressive). 23. * *Anticipatory It is when the end of the first word anticipates some aspect of the beginning of the second one. 24. * Orthographic Version Careful Pronunciation Assimilation Bad Man bdmn bbmn Good times GdtaImz Gttaimz Give me gIvmi: gImmi: Anticipatory 25. * Orthographic Version Careful Pronunciation Assimilation Whos this? hu:zis huzzis In that car Ink: Innkk Save them seIvm seIvvm Retrospective 26. * *Another process that takes place in connected speech is elision, which involves the loss of a sound that would be articulated in a careful pronunciation. *The most frequently elided consonants in English are /t/ and /d/, particularly when they occur between other consonants, 27. * Orthographic Version Careful Pronunciation Elided Version Handsome /hndsm/ /hnsm/ Windmill /wIndmIl/ /wInmIl/ Mostly /mostlI:/ /mosli/ Kindness /kaIndns/ /kaInns/ Retrospective 28. * *To aid the flow of speech, consonants and vowels are sometimes added to words in a casual style when they would not be pronounced if the word was said on its own. This is known as insertion. The most common examples occur when the first word ends in a vowel and the second begins with a vowel. 29. * *The inserted consonants are usually approximants, /r/, /j/ and /w/, because they are less consonant-like than the other consonants and detract less obviously from the vowels in the two words. 30. * 31. * 32. * *morphology is the study of the structure of words in a language and it considers the individual parts of the word, commonly called morphemes, as the smallest unit of meaning in the language. 33. * *Though it is not a familiar term outside linguistics, the morpheme is one of the most useful concepts introduced in twentieth-century linguistic theory, as it gives a generic name to those units of language that fall between phonology and syntax and were previously known only by different names (prefix, suffix, base, and so on) according to their behavior. 34. * *Free morphemes are essentially the words of the language with no additions, whereas bound morphemes are the affixes that are added to free morphemes to alter their grammatical effect in various ways. 35. * 36. * *Derivation is the process by which words have a morpheme added that changes their meaning and often their class. *Mature maturation *motivate motivation *create creation 37. * *Note that maturation is a process (of becoming mature), whilst motivation is usually more of a product than a process, and creation can be either a product or a process: *The maturation of the cheese takes place over a few weeks. *My motivation was the result of your encouragement. 38. * *The inflectional morphemes in English are all suffixes, that is, they are all bound morphemes added to the end of the base word. What characterizes them is that they are fairly regular, in both form and meaning, and apply to all the members of a word class. It is also important to note that the inflectional morphemes do not change the class of the word, but alter the grammatical form in ways that are relevant to the word class concerned. 39. * *The principle of compounding is that the meaning of the resulting word is not simply the sum of its parts, but has a further meaning that could not immediately be predicted by someone who knew the meaning of the free morphemes individually. *Thus blackboard is more than simply any board that happens to be black; it has a specific function in educational settings and incidentally is not always black. 40. * *The grammatical category of a compound word in English is always the same as the category of the second (or last) free morpheme. Thus a noun plus noun combination will be a noun overall (for example sledgehammer), as will an adjective plus noun combination (for example high school), whereas a noun plus verb combination will be a verb (for example water-ski) and a noun plus adjective combination will be an adjective (for example fire-retardant). 41. * 42.