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Discovering Flight. Chapter Overview. Discovering Flight The Early Days of Flight. Lesson Overview. How humans tried to fly in ancient times Key aviation devices created during ancient times Why machines do not fly the way birds do. Warm Up Questions CPS Questions (1-2). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Discovering Flight

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Chapter OverviewDiscovering FlightThe Early Days of Flight

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Lesson OverviewHow humans tried to fly in ancient timesKey aviation devices created during ancient timesWhy machines do not fly the way birds do

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Warm Up Questions

    CPS Questions(1-2)Courtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Quick Write

    Why do you think the idea of flightis so appealing to people?

    Does it appeal to you? Why?

    (Note to Instructor: Use Pick a Student button in CPS)

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1How Humans Tried to Fly in Ancient TimesCourtesy of AKG Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Flight in Ancient TimesHumans have dreamed of taking flight for thousands of years Flight is the act of passing through the air on wings People told tales about flight around the fire at night and handed down these stories to their children

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Daedalus and IcarusOne of the best known is the Greek story of Daedalus and his son, Icarus

    Courtesy of the Granger Collection, New York

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1First True Stories of Human Attempts to FlySome early inventors made devices of lightweight material in imitation of birds or bats wings

    They strapped the devices onto their arms or legs, and then they would jump from the top of a tower

    Unfortunately, none of the devices succeeded

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Armen FirmanA Moor named Armen Firman made the first known human attempt to fly He put on a huge cloak and jumped from a tower in Cordoba, SpainHe hoped the cloak would open wide like a bats wings to slow him on the way down But it didnt, and Firman fell to his death

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Armen FirmanHis unfortunate experiment might be described as an early attempt at a jump by parachute A parachute is a device intended to slow free fall from an aircraft or another high point Courtesy of Clipart.com

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Key Aviation Devices From Ancient TimesCourtesy of NASA

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Chinese KitesThe Chinese invented the kite around 1000 BCA kite is a light framework covered with paper or cloth, provided with a balancing tail, designed to be flown in the airWithin a few hundred years, people were using kites in warfare

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Chinese GunpowderIn the eight hundreds, the Chinese made another important invention: gunpowder Gunpowder is an explosive powder made of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur, used to shoot projectiles from guns200 years later, the Chinese used gunpowder to make the first simple rockets

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Chinese RocketsA rocket is a large, cylindrical object that moves very fast by forcing burning gases out one end of the tubeThe Chinese used these devices mostly for celebrations, such as holiday fireworksBut they also used their rockets in battle to scare off the enemy

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Man in the MoonTheres even a Chinese legend about a rocket trip into space

    A legend is an unverified story handed down from earlier times Courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Learning Check #1

    CPS Questions(3-4)Courtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Leonardo da VinciThe first person in the history of aviation who was also a real scientist was Leonardo da Vinci (14521519)

    Courtesy of the Library of Congress

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1A Parachute andA HelicopterDa Vinci produced the first known designs for a parachute and a helicopterA helicopter is an aircraft that gets its lift from spinning blades Da Vincis drawing of an aerial screw looks a lot like a modern helicopter

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1A Parachute andA HelicopterWhats more, todays parachutes are based on principles first described by da Vinci He wrote that his invention would allow someone to throw himself down from any height without sustaining any injury

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1GlidersDa Vinci also researched the idea of a gliderA glider is a light aircraft without an engine, designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapultGliders were the first aircraft that had directional control

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1OrnithoptersDa Vinci was fascinated with birds and experimented with flapping-wing machines He worked out designs for ornithoptersAn ornithopter is an aircraft designed to get its support and forward motion from flapping wings

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1OrnithoptersCourtesy of the Granger Collection, New York

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Learning Check #2

    CPS Questions(5-6)Courtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Why Machines Do Not Fly the Way Birds DoCourtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Principles of Bird FlightA birds flight is similar to an airplanes in some ways and different in others

    There are two phases of bird flight:A ground phase And a lift phase

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Birds WingsWing feathers are arranged much like shingles on a roofThey change position when the bird is flappingOn the downbeat of the wing, the feathers are pressed together so little air can pass through themOn the up stroke the feathers open

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Daniel BernoulliThe Dutch-born scientist Daniel Bernoulli (17001782) discovered that a fluid has a constant pressure, but when a fluid starts to move faster, the pressure drops

    Taken from wikipedia.com

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Bernoullian LiftWings are designed to make air flow faster over their topsthis makes the pressure drop and the wings move upward, defying the force of gravity

    This phenomenon is known as Bernoullian lift or induced lift

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Sir Isaac NewtonThe Englishman Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) formulated three famous laws of motion

    Taken from wikipedia.com

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Newtonian LiftThe third law states, For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

    For example, when a pilot angles the wing of the plane up against the oncoming wind, the action of the wind causes a reaction by the wing

    This reaction provides some additional lift, known as Newtonian or dynamic lift

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Why Some Ancient Inventors Tried to Mimic Bird FlightAt the beginning of aviation history, flapping wings seemed to be what flight was all about

    People observed birds, bats, and insects flying this way

    Some early inventors thought feathers might possess some lifting power of their own

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Why Some Ancient Inventors Tried to Mimic Bird FlightAnd even a thinker as brilliant as da Vinci got stuck on birds as the model for human flight

    Only when people stopped trying to fly as birds do did the way open for the Wright brothers success on the North Carolina dunes

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Learning Check #3

    CPS Questions(7-8)Courtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1ReviewHumans have dreamed of taking flight for thousands of years Some early inventors made devices of lightweight material such as cloth or wood, in imitation of birds or bats wings The Chinese invented the kite around 1000 BCThey also invented gunpowder and rockets

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1ReviewLeonardo da Vinci produced the first known designs for a parachute and a helicopterDa Vinci also researched the idea of a glider and some designs for ornithoptersThere are two phases of bird flighta ground phase and a lift phase

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1ReviewWings are designed to make air flow faster over their topsThis makes the pressure drop and the wings move upward, defying the force of gravitythis is known as Bernoullian lift or induced liftNewtons third law of motion states, For every action, there is an equal and opposite reactionThis reaction provides some additional lift, known as Newtonian or dynamic lift

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1ReviewBy now youre beginning to understand that birds and airplanes dont work exactly alike:

    Airplanes are fixed-wing aircraft and rely on their propellers to get them off the ground

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Review Questions

    CPS Questions(9-10)Courtesy of Comstock Images

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1SummaryHow humans tried to fly in ancient timesKey aviation devices created during ancient timesWhy machines do not fly the way birds do

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  • Chapter 1, Lesson 1Next.Donediscovering flight

    Nextthe early days of flightCourtesy of Bettman/Corbis

    Chapter 1, Lesson 1

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