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- 1. Contents 1. Definition. 2. Introduction. 3. Features. 4. Uses. 5. Advantages. 6. Applications. 7. Fingerprint Recognition Gadgets. 8. Types of fingerprint. 9. Characteristics of Fingerprint. 10. Variations of Fingerprint. 11. Fingerprinting Sensors. 12. Algorithms. 13. Different Techniques of Fingerprinting. 14. Requirements for Fingerprint Processor. 15. Block Diagram of Fingerprint Processing System. 16 . Fingerprint Mechanism using DIP. 17. Steps in Fingerprint Processing. 18. Conclusion. 19. References.
- 2. Definition A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.
- 3. Introduction i. Fingerprint Identification/Recognition is one of the most well- known & publicized biometrics. ii. Because of their uniqueness & consistency over time, fingerprints have been used for Identification for over a century & recently becoming automated. iii. The concept of fingerprint came in 19Th century by Sir Francis Galton, which were known as Galton Points. iv. In 1969, it was a major push by FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) & CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) officials in United States to develop a completely Automated Fingerprint Identification Process to track Criminals, Smugglers & keep their records as an Identification to track them in American Airports & Ports. v. Hence, making this attempt famous & overwhelming around the world.
- 4. Features Unique - The ridges and their characteristics of our fingers are unique. Each person has distinct and unique ridges on finger, sole, and palm.
- 5. Uses Personal Identification:-The patterns of fingerprint are extensively modified but the quantity, characteristics, and position of the ridges remained unchanged. Eg:- Fingerprint in an ID-Card. Criminal Cases:- During investigations on criminal cases - Fingerprinting is the most affordable and at the same time the best way to identity a criminal. The presence of fingerprints in the crime scene is the only way that will prove who was the criminal. This is because a fingerprint alone is enough conclusive evidence.
- 6. Advantages & Applications Advantages To prevent stealing of identity - The fingerprints are important to be included in some important documents such as passports, social security cards, bank accounts, driving licenses, and others to avoid the use or access of unauthorized persons. Applications Fingerprints are important in manufacturing biometrics-based electronic gadgets such as Finger printing systems. Security systems door. Locking door access control systems. Attendance fingerprint systems. Digital fingerprints of security systems.
- 7. Fingerprint Recognition Gadgets
- 8. Types of fingerprint Visible prints :- It is also called patent prints. It can be seen when blood, dirt, ink or grease on the finger come into contact with a smooth surface and leave a friction ridge impression that is visible without development. Latent prints :- They are not apparent to the naked eye. They can be made sufficiently visible by dusting, fuming or chemical reagents. Impressed prints :- It also called plastic prints. They are visible and can be viewed or photographed without development.
- 9. Characteristics Variations
- 10. Fingerprinting Sensors A fingerprint sensor is an electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerprint pattern. The captured image is called a live scan. This live scan is digitally processed to create a biometric template (a collection of extracted features) which is stored and used for matching. This is an overview of some of the more commonly used fingerprint sensor technologies. :- Optical:- Optical fingerprint imaging involves capturing a digital image of the print using visible light. This type of sensor is, in essence, a specialized digital camera. Ultrasonic:- Ultrasonic sensors make use of the principles of medical ultra-sonography in order to create visual images of the fingerprint. Unlike optical imaging, ultrasonic sensors use very high frequency sound waves to penetrate the epidermal layer of skin. Capacitance:- Capacitance sensors utilize the principles associated with capacitance in order to form fingerprint images. Passive capacitance:- A passive capacitance sensor uses the principle outlined above to form an image of the fingerprint patterns on the dermal layer of skin. Active capacitance:- Active capacitance sensors use a charging cycle to apply a voltage to the skin before measurement takes place.
- 11. Algorithms Matching algorithms are used to compare previously stored templates of fingerprints against candidate fingerprints for authentication purposes. In order to do this either the original image must be directly compared with the candidate image or certain features must be compare. Pattern-based (or image-based) algorithms:-Pattern based algorithms compare the basic fingerprint patterns (arch, whorl, and loop) between a previously stored template and a candidate fingerprint. This requires that the images be aligned in the same orientation. The candidate fingerprint image is graphically compared with the template to determine the degree to which they match.
- 12. Different Techniques of Fingerprinting Traditional Technique:- The traditional or most common technique of fingerprinting is taking impressions of a person's hand with the help of ink. Pressing fingers covered in ink, on to a paper is the way of obtaining fingerprints. Digital Scanning Technique:- A sensitive touch-pad is used to capture the fingerprints of a person or a suspect in this method. The impression of fingerprint recorded on the touch-pad is then compared with thousands of impressions with the help of software . Lifting Technique:- In this technique, oil from hands which are left behind are captured by means of powders made from resinous polymers. This technique is specially used in Crime Investigations. Laser Technique:- The laser technique is one of the most useful for capturing fingerprints. In this fingerprinting technology, the fingerprints from many different surfaces can be lifted by means of laser. Bullet Fingerprinting :- This technique is considered as a sure shot method of fingerprint identification, because even wiping and washing of the surface cannot remove the sweat gland deposits completely. It is possible to visualize the fingerprint.
- 13. Requirements for Fingerprint Processor Speed. Size of the fingerprint identification database Power consumption. The core architecture of a processor: A dual multiply-accumulate (MAC) or single-MAC core should be considered for this application. Bus architecture. Power management integration. Others: Other important considerations include dedicated hardware for different addressing modes, loop control and execution control and peripheral integration.
- 14. Block Diagram of Fingerprint Processing System.
- 15. Fingerprint Mechanism using DIP A popular and reliable way to compare fingerprints is to analyze the minutiae of the fingerprint. To do so, a system must first capture the image of a fingerprint and process the image to make it easy for image analysis. After the analysis, the minutiae will be extracted and saved in a template format. The system must then store the data of the minutiae to be used for future comparison. Fingerprint sensors Based on the fingerprint processing diagram, a sensor is the front-end of the system, playing an import role: it captures the image of the fingerprint. The two types of popular sensors used in fingerprint analysis are the optical and swipe sensors. Here are basic descriptions of how they operate. Optical sensor:-An optical fingerprint sensor captures a digital image of the fingerprint by using visible light. The following describes the operation principle of an optical sensor. First, the light source inside of a sensor will emit light to illuminate the surface of the finger. The light reflected from the finger passes to a solid-state pixels sensor (either a charge-coupled device [CCD] or complementary metal oxide semiconductor [CMOS] image sensor), which captures a visual image of the fingerprint. On the path of the light, a specially designed lens will be used. Swipe sensor:-A swipe sensor is a type of active capacitance sensor. Here is how an active capacitance sensor works. First, the active capacitance sensors will apply a voltage to the skin. This will generate an electrical field in the space between the skin and sensor. Since the electrical field between the finger-skin and sensor follows the pattern of the ridges in the dermal skin layer, the effective capacitance will be measured across this field. The distances between skin and sensors can then be calculated mathematically by using this equation: C = 0*r*(A/d); here d represents the distance. Based on the calculated distances across the field, the fingerprint image can be mapped.
- 16. OPTICAL SENSOR. SWIPE SENSOR.
- 17. Continued Fingerprint processing After an image of a fingerprint is captured, a sequence of image processing algorithms will be applied to the captured image. In fingerprint authentication applications, two main types of technologies are being used: one is called minutiae based, and the other is called image based. Minutiae are the special spots of a fingerprint that show the changing of the print. These spots have been predefined and categorized. Two main features of minutiae, which are extracted from these spots: Ridge ending. Bifurcation. However, the minutiae are not limited to these two features. In a minutiae-based system, the goal is to find the minutiae in the captured fingerprint image and compare them with fingerprints that are in the database. In order to extract the minutiae successfully, the fingerprint
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