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<ul><li> 1. Sieu thi dien may Viet Long - www.vietlongplaza.com.vn Download ti liu min ph t website http://trithuccongdong.com NH HNG TP TRUNG TNG LAI CA CTY CC BN PH THUC VO IU NY Tc gi: AL RIES Ngi dch: Thi Hng Tm *** LI NI U Sau nhiu nm hot ng v nghin cu cc cch ng dng marketing, ti nhn thy v nhn ra tm quan trng ca vic nh hng tp trung trong cc t chc kinh doanh v y cng chnh l l do c mt ca cun sch ny. Cun sch ny tp trung vo cc muc tiu thc t ca qu trnh marketing, mt qu trnh khng ch bao gm vic bn mt sn phm hay mt dch v m cn l xc nh mt tng lai cho hot ng ca cc t chc na. Cng vic chnh yu nht ca ban qun tr mt cng ty l xc nh mt tng lai cho t chc ca mnh. Khng ch l mt tng lai tng qut m l mt tng lai chuyn bit nm trong tm kim sot ca cc t chc kinh doanh. nh hng tp trung l mt tng lai c d kin v ri ln k hoch, i nhng bc cn phi c to tng lai ny thnh hin thc. Tng lai l ni hnh thnh ca cc ch marketing. Mi t chc kinh doanh u ch c hai chc nng cn bn, Peter Drucker vit, marketing v sng to t ph. Marketing l mt chc nng c o v c trng ca vic kinh doanh, Peter Drucker vit tip. Cng ty kinh doanh l mt t chc hon ton khc bit so vi cc loi t chc khc v t chc ny marketing cho mt sn phm hay mt dch v no . Khng c mt tn gio no, qun i no, trng hc hay quc gia no lm iu ny nh mt cng ty kinh doanh. Bt k mt t chc no tip th cho mt sn phm hay mt dch v no u l mt cng ty kinh doanh. Bt c mt t chc no m cng vic marketing ch l mt yu t ph trong s pht trin u khng nn c iu hnh theo kiu ca mt cng ty kinh doanh. n lc m marketing phi c chp nhn nh mt gi tr quan trng m n xng ng. D nhng li trn c Peter Drucker vit ra trong cun The Practice of Management pht hnh ln u t nm 1954, nhn thc ny phi mt mt thi gian mi thm nhp c vo h thng thc lnh o ca cc cng ty M. V cn phi mt thm mt thi gian khng ngn na mt t chc mi c th thay i c nhn thc ca mnh v marketing. Sau Th chin I, mi cng ty u tp trung vo vic sn xut. Ngh thut qun tr c th hin theo cc nghin cu v thi gian v s vn ng ca Frederic Taylor. Thnh cng kinh doanh ch n vi nhng cng ty no c th sn xut v nhanh chng a sn phm ca mnh ra th trng nhanh hn v vi chi ph thp hn cc i th. Sau Th chin II, s tp trung trn chuyn dn sang vi cc mi trng ti chnh. Ngh thut qun tr lc ny c th hin di khi nim thu ht u t. Thnh cng kinh doanh lc ny li n vi cc t chc c kh nng mua bn cc cng ty kinh doanh ca mnh tt nht, th hin c s tp trung v thu ht u t cao nht. Ngy nay, kh nng sn xut v qun tr ti chnh hon tt bc pht trin ca chng v s tp trung ngy nay l thuc v marketing. Nhng Bill Gates ca Microsoft, Bert Roberts ca MCI, Ross Perot ca Perot System, Sam Walton cua Wal-Mart, Mike Harper ca ConAgra, Fred Turner ca McDonalds, Michael Eisner ca Walt Disney, John Smale ca Procter &amp; Gamble, Robert Goizueta ca Coca-Cola v Roger Smith ca General Motors c </li> <li> 2. Download ti liu min ph t website http://trithuccongdong.comim g chung?Ai cng bit nhng ngi ny l mt s trong nhng gim c iu hnh c phch ca th gii trong mthai thp nin va qua. ng vy nhng tt c nhng ngi ny cn c tn trong danh sch Nhng Ngilm Marketing ca nm do tp ch Advertising Age bu chn trong thi gian t 1985 n 1994. (nm1995, Michael Eisner li mt ln na c chn vo danh sch ny).Advertising Age nhn thc c thc t ca vic kinh doanh ngy nay. Tng gim c iu hnh cngchnh l tng gim c marketing! Marketing ngy nay l mt cng vic qu quan trng i vi cc bphn marketing, David Packard, ng sng lp Hewlett-Packard, ni th.ng ni nht l s thnh cng trn c tuyt vi ca Microsoft. Sau y l nhng g m Lou Gerstner caIBM phi ni v Bill Gates v Microsoft, i th ca chng ti khng h l mt cng ty c k thutcc tt nhng h l mt cng ty marketing tht tuyt vi m ti tng c chng kin sau hai mi nmln ln trong ngh marketing.Bn c th ngh g v vic mt ngi lm marketing li vit sch v qun tr? Mt cu hi ng gi.Nhng cu hi mt nh qun tr l ngi th no? cn l mt cu hi ng gi hn na.V cu tr li l: mt ngi lm marketing c kh nng c cc vn bn kt ton v cn i chi ph.GII THIUMt tri l mt ngun nng lng khng l. Mi mt gi, mt tri xung tri t ny hng t t kilowattnng lng. Vi mt ci nn v mt vi vt dng che chn, bn c th tm trong nng mt tri nhiu gilin m khng h phi e ngi bnh tt.Tia laser ch l ngun nng lng nh b, ch tiu th c vi watt nng lng nhng vi s tp trung cnh hng, tia laser c th xuyn thng mt ht kim cng hay t b mt mm mng ung th trong cth con ngi.Khi bn nh hng tng lai cho mt cng ty, bn cng ang to thnh mt tc ng tng t nh tialaser. Bn ang to thnh mt kh nng y sc mnh chi phi mt th trng. l kh nng ca snh hng.Khi mt cng ty mt i kh nng nh hng tp trung, n nh m i sc mnh ng gi ny. Cng ty tr thnh mt mt tri ang chia nh ton b nng lng ca n ra cho qu nhiu sn phm v th trngkhc nhau.Trong vi thp nin gn y, v s sn phm v dch v c tung ra trn cc th trng. S pht trinnhanh chng ca k thut v kh nng sn xut em li cho ngi tiu dng hng ng cc loi snphm v tt c gn nh lun sn sng khp mi ni. V i ph vi vic ny, cc cng ty m rngcc ging sn phm ca mnh n ht mc c th.Nhng cc cng ty khng th c m rng mi cc ging sn phm ca mnh c. H t n chkhng th khng ngh li. H lng tng trc vic phi qun l mt b su tp cc sn phm v dch vqu to ln v phc tp, hiu lc mt dn cng lc vi nhng li th cnh tranh.Cc cng ty tr thnh nhng ng mt tri khng l v sc nng ca nhng mt tri ny cng gim thiutng ng vi s bnh trng ca chng. Trong s nhng mt tri c c nhng tn tui nh GeneralMotors, IBM, Sears, RoebuckMt tri khng th nh hng tp trung cho ngun nng lng ca n nhng cc cng ty th hon ton c </li> <li> 3. Download ti liu min ph t website http://trithuccongdong.comth! V y chnh l thng ip ca cun sch ny. n lc pht trin sc mnh tht ca mt cng tybng cch thu hp v tp trung s nh hng li.May mn thay, mt s tng gim c iu hnh nhn c thng ip ny v ngay c n ngi khngl General Electric cng phi ngng vic m rng ca mnh li. H phi bn i mt s cng cuckinh doanh chnh ca mnh nh my tnh, thit b truyn hnh, v.vNhng g bn ang nhn thy ch l nhng phn ng buc phi c trc s m rng qu . Thay v tip tcm rng, cc cng ty ang i theo hng ngc li. H quay tr li vi nhng g l cn bn ca mnh. H hc c bi hc ca tia laser nh hng tp trung nh th no.V cc bn cng khng th khc. Tng lai ca cng ty cc bn ph thuc vo iu ny.1- S MT NH HNG TP TRUNG CA CC CNG TY MCc cng ty ni chung u chu chung mt tc ng nh nhau. Pht trin.Cc cng ty u buc phi tng trng mi lc v li nhun hng nm cho d h ang phi hot ng trongnhng th trng khng cn c kh nng pht trin. p ng cho yu cu bt buc ny, cc cng ty cngbuc phi m rng cc cung ng ca mnh. Thm nhp vo cc th trng mi. Tip nhn thm cc cng tyv sn phm khc na hay chp nhn lin doanh.Cho d bn c gi qu trnh m rng ny l m rng ging sn phm, a dng ha hay cng lc thcng ch l mt qu trnh, s thc p phi ln mnh l nguyn nhn lm cho cc cng ty mt s nhhng tp trung. V cng chnh l l do khin cho cc cng ty nh IBM vi tng doanh thu 63 t USD /nm vn phi chu l 8 t v General Motors vi 133 t vn phi chu l 23 t.Cho d yu cu phi ln mnh ln l tt yu nhng vic theo ui s ln mnh ch c xem l lnmnh r rng l mt sai lm chin lc nghim trng. V ng nhin phi c nhng tng gim c iuhnh b a ln gin gio tr gi cho nhng sai lm chin lc do chnh h to nn ny. Trong s ny cnhng ci tn nh: James Robinson American Express, John Sculley Apple, Barry Gibbons BurgerKing, Rod Canion Compaq, Robert Stempel General Motors, John Akers IBM v cn nhiu na.Khng ch v theo ui s pht trin m cc cng ty tr nn mt nh hng tp trung. T thn vic mt snh hng tp trung l mt hin tng t nhin hnh thnh khng dnh g n cc n lc c nh ca mtcng ty.Mt cng ty thnh cng thng khi u vi s tp trung cao vo mt vi sn phm hay th trng nhngqua thi gian h mt i s tp trung ny khi bt u cung ng qu nhiu cc loi sn phm v dch v khcnhau nhiu mc gi cho nhng th trng loi.Bn chc c th ang lm vic cho mt cng ty tng t. Mi vic pht trin thun li trong thi gian uv nhng sn phm hay dch v u tin l nhng thng li ln. Cng ty bt u c nhng d kin lnlao cng vi gi c phiu c vt nhanh nh ha tin. Nhng thnh cng cng cng lc mang li nhng chi mi v kh nng m rng ra nhiu hng mi. Mi ngi u hng phn vi ngh ri y ta s caitr c th gii. l mt kch bn tng xy ra vi General Motors trong thp nin 60, vi Sears trong thp nin 70, viIBM trong thp nin 80 v vi Microsoft trong thp nin 90.Sau mt thi gian, mi vic bt u ri rm. iu tng chng l mt th gii nhng c hi bng binthnh mt v tr nhng vn ! Nhng mc tiu khng t. Mi lc ng chng. Li nhun tut dc v uytn tht thng. </li> <li> 4. Download ti liu min ph t website http://trithuccongdong.comNH HNG TP TRUNG (Bi 3)Cc nghin cu v cc cuc tip nhn v gii th ca cc cng ty ni trn cng nh ca nhiu cng ty khcna cho thy chu k mua ri bn ny thng tn ti khong su nm. Su nm l mt thi gian di mt cng ty c th chp nhn sai lm ca mnh. V su nm cng l mt thi gian nhng ngi bvn u t ngui ngoai i nhng tng cng lc k v ng nh y ha hn cho mt tng li pht trinln mnh khng tng khi cc cuc tip nhn c tin hnh.Nu chu k ni trn hon tt vi nhng tc ng tch cc c c trn cc mt trn quan h cng lun,thng bo gii th tr v vi nn tng s nh ng c s ch ca gii bo ch cng nh truynthng tng t nh khi cc thng bo tip nhn c cng b.D sao, mt s cng cuc a dng ha c cc cng ty ln thc hin nhn chung tht ng nc ci. Ngy7 thng Mi Hai 1985, Lee Iacocca khai trng mt cng ty Chrysler hon ton mi, mt cng ty m mvic sn xut xe ch cn l mt lnh vc hot ng trong ton th m thi. Chrysler tr thnh mt tp onvi bn cng ty con: Chrysler Motors, Chrysler Aerospace (Gulfstream), Chrysler Financial v ChryslerTechnologies.Vo thi gian , cng ty cui cng Chrysler Technologies- hu nh ch l mt cng ty trn danh nghabi Iacocca khng mua thm mt cng ty no khc lp y hot ng ca cng ty ny. Nhng khngbao lu sau, Iacocca nhanh chng bt u mt cuc ua tip nhn cc cng ty cng ngh cao vi tngvn u t ln n hng t la.Sau ny Iacocca phi th nhn, cng cuc a dng ha Chrysler l mt sai lm ln nht c thchin. Chng ti khng cn phi tr thnh mt tp on, iu s v a chng ti tr thnh mt cng tyhng siu nng. Nhng nu chng ti lc hng bn bit , t n nay c khng bit bao nhiucng ty cng lc hng- chng ti cn phi nhanh chng nh hng tp trung tr li.Ford Motors Company cng khng hn g, cng ty ny cng tri qua cng mt bi hc tng t. Tnggim c iu hnh Donald Peterson quyt nh l Ford phi tr thnh mt cng ty m vi ba cng tytrc thuc. Mt l cng ty sn xut xe hi, tt nhin. Th hai l mt cng ty ti chnh v th ba l mt cngty cng ngh cao. ng Peterson tp trung mnh vo cng ty ti chnh vi vic tip nhn ba cng ty tichnh ln khc vi tng chi ph 6 t la trong qung thi gian t 1985 n 1989. V ng nhin vinhng kt qu chng ra g.Mong mun tr thnh mt cng ty m khng ch l c quyn ca cc cng ty khng l. Cc cng ty nhcng khng d g thot khi cch suy ngh tng t. Khi doanh thu ca h t n mt con s tng iln, trn di 10 triu la/nm, mt cng ty nh cng thng bc n cui con ng pht trin camnh v tr thnh mt nh hng tp trung.Ci ngng mi triu l thi im m thng cc ch doanh nghip cm nhn l cng ty ca h trthnh qu ln v cn phi trao bt quyn iu hnh li cho ba hay bn nhn vt ch cht khc na. V ktqu: mi mt ngi s iu hnh phn hot ng ca mnh theo mt hng ring. cng bng hn. Ti cng nhc n y trng hp ca siu tp on General Electric, mt cng ty mhn mt phn ba tng s li nhun trc thu ca h n t cng ty con GE Capital. Vn l, c phingi nh quyn lc ti chnh 20 t la ny hng li t mi lin h vi GE hay khng? Hay thnh cngca t chc ny l hon ton c lp? Ti ngh l vic hai thc th c lin h vi nhau khng bt buc lchng phi c nhng mi quan h nhn qu vi nhau.Mua mt t v s vn lun l mt chin lc cha nh bi bi hu ht nhng ngi mua u s mtkhng s tin b ra ca mnh. Nhng ngay mt chin lc tht bi nh vy cng vn c nhng ngichin thng ca n. GE Capital d sao cng l mt cng ty thnh cng cho d n c c hnh thnh tmt chin lc a dng ha tht bi.D sao chng na th nhng thnh cng trong qu kh cng khng h bo m cho ai nhng thnh cng </li> <li> 5. Download ti liu min ph t website http://trithuccongdong.comtrong tng lai, c bit l khi bn ang theo ui mt chin lc tht bi. Ti khng ngh l GE Capital stip tc gt hi c nhng thnh qu phi thng.V lu v di, khng c ch cho s may mn y, thnh cng l thuc v cc cng ty th hin s nhhng tp trung cao nht v nhng cng ty no mt nh hng tp trung s phi lnh nhn ly s phn canhng k thua cuc. Nguyn l ch o, yu t cn bn s nh hnh mi quyt nh ca mt cng ty, lnguyn l ca s nh hng tp trung.Nu s nh hng tp trung l qu quan trng nh vy, ti sao li c qu t cc cng ty c hng li binguyn l ny? Sao gn nh hu ht cc cun sch v qun tr u khng my quan tm n s nh hngtp trung ny? V sao nguyn l ch o ny u b tt c cc tng gim c iu hnh xem thng haythm ch lm ngc li?C nhng lc, iu kh nhn bit nht li thng l nhng g r rng nht nh c Edgar Allan Poekch ha trong cun sch The Purloined Letter ca ng. V iu hon ton minh bch, r rng vi mtngi quan st ngoi cuc v hu ht cc t chc kinh doanh ngy nay l mt tin trnh dn d, ngy quangy v khng thay i i n ch mt nh hng tp trung. Bn c th gi l mt trt t hay g g ty , mt nh hng tp trung ang l mt thc t ca cc t chc ngy nay. V ti ca cun schny l phi lm g vi thc t ?V tnh trng ny cng ti t hn v cc cng ty ang n lc mt cch hon ton thc tr thnh mtnh hng tp trung! Nghe tht v l nhng ng l s tht. Chng ta c th gi qu trnh ny l mrng ging sn phm, hay theo t ng bt t ca cc nh t vn qun tr, m rng c phn thng hiu.M rng ging sn phm l l do th dai dn n s mt nh hng tp trung ca cc cng ty M. Mtthc t vn ang hin hu cho d c nhng du hiu c mn.Cha mt ai tng m rng c phn thng hiu cho bng Donald Trump. Vo thi gian u, Trump thnh cng vi con ng ca mnh. Donald bt u m rng hn na v t ci tn ni ting ca mnhvo bt c mt th g m cc ngn hng chp nhn v cho ng vay vn. Ba sng bi, hai khch sn, mthng hng khng, mt trung tm mua sm, mt i bng v c mt vng ua xe p.Tp ch Fortune gi Trump l mt nh u t nhy bn vi tin mt v gi tr ti sn, mt ngi lmmarketing khn ngoan, mt ngi m phn gi ranh mnh. C Time v Newsweek u chn hnh nhca ngi n ng ny lm hnh ba cho cc tp ch ni ting ca h. V hm nay, Donald Trump l mtcon n ngp u vi nhiu chc triu La khng th thanh ton. iu em ng n vi nhng thnhcng nht thi ni trn cng chnh l iu y ng xung vi tht bi v lu v di m rng ging snphm!Tht bi tng t cng tng xy ra vi Sir Freddie Laker vo nm 1977 khi hng hng khng LakerAirways gii thiu dch v Skytrain (xe la tri) vi th trng Bc i Ty Dng. Mt hnh thc dch vbay gim gi i vi thc n v cc dch v ph khc. Dch v Skytrain c n nhn nh mt hnh thcvui m r i vi ngi dn Vng quc Anh. Hai nm sau, Laker bt u gii thiu thm cc dch v phkhc na.Sau cng, Sir Freddie cung ng thm tt c l nm loi hnh dch v c tnh ph ph tri khc na bao gmmt dch v cao cp Regency hon ton nhm vo mc ch tng thm li nhun. lm cho hnh nhca mnh phc tp hn na trong con mt ca ngi tiu dng, Business Week vit, nhng dch v mica Laker Airways lm tng thm chi ph vn chuyn v hy hoi mt tnh n gin vn c ca tngxe la tri nguyn thy. t r thi chinh phc th gii ca mnh, Sir Freddie t thm mi chic Airbus A300 v m thmnhiu tuyn bay Lin Chu u khc na bao gm qu bom tn ni lin ba mi lm thnh ph Chu u.Ngay trc khi ph sn vo nm 1982, ng ny vn cn kp gii thiu tuyn bay Globetrain vi ng bayvng quanh th gii v l mt bo m cho tnh cn...</li></ul>