Digital libraries initiatives in India
Post on 21-Jun-2016
The International Information & Library Review (2006) 38, 161169
The InternationalInformation & Library Review
EncbIndira Gandhi National Open University, Delhi, India
& 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
and the library schools are re-designing their
additional technology, education and training are
resources. The paper intends to propose variousaspects of evaluation of DLs initiatives in India.The advantage of having a DL is now well under-stood by librarians, technologists, management and
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Corresponding author.E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (P.K. Jain), parveen-users.
1057-2317/$ - see front matter & 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.iilr.2006.06.003
email@example.com (P. Babbar).The role of the librarian and the information officeris changing in the digital library (DL) situation.With the changing scenario each is required toacquire new skills for developing and managingthe DLs. The departments of Library Sciences
required.In India there are a number of university and
institute libraries, which are in the process ofconversion into DLs. Library and informationcentres in the present time are digitizing theircurricula in the changing environment. For DLs,Summary Digital libraries (DLs) have evolved, and developments in informationtechnology have changed the concept of the library from one of print and papermedia to digital media. The success of a DL depends upon the computers,communication skills, and knowledge of library professionals in connection withmodern technology. In the present scenario, we stand at a transition from thetraditional library to a global DL. The technology-based idea is to provide universalaccess to digital content available only in a DL environment.
Today the emergence of digital technology and computer networks has provided ameans whereby information can be stored, retrieved, disseminated and duplicatedin a fast and efficient manner. On a global level, DLs have made considerableadvances both in technology and its application. India still has far to go if the nationis to benefit from this movement. Only sporadic and partial attempts have beenmade towards DL initiatives in India.
The basic objective of DL initiatives in India has been to preserve the art, cultureand heritage of this country. All projects aimed at creating DLs concentrate only onspecialized collections. The DL initiative in India is still at a nascent or embryonicstage. But with the initiative like DL policy, it can also be said that the nation isserious about DL implementation.Digital libraries initiative
P.K. Jaina,, Parveen Babbarb
aInstitute of Economic Growth, University of Delhiin India
lave, Delhi 110007, India
Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), Indian
also partner with other country specific DL initia-
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P.K. Jain, P. Babbar162Institutes of Science (IIScs), research institutesand some special libraries. Some governmentagencies, as well as public-sector institutions, arealso engaged in digitization of libraries. But theinitiatives taken by the Government of India in thisdirection indicate that the potential of ICTs fordeveloping DLs has not been fully realized. Whileone government agency is providing support for oneparticular aspect, the other is focusing elsewhere,without any coordinated effort by a nodal agency.The concept of DLs in the developed countries
started during the 1970s, but in India it began in themid-1990s with the advent of ITon a large scale andthe support extended by the central government.The advent of the Internet acted as a catalyst forDL initiatives. The basic objective of DL initiativesin India has been to preserve the art, culture andheritage of this country. All projects aimed atcreating DLs concentrate only on specializedcollections. The DL initiative in India is still at anascent or embryonic stage.The concept was recognized in India during the
Fifteenth Annual Convention and Conference onDigital Libraries, organized by the Society ofInformation Science at Bangalore from 18 to 20January 1996. A few libraries had made attempts inthis direction earlier.Only sporadic and partial attempts have been
made towards DL initiatives. Simplistic approacheshave been taken in the libraries, such as getting afew databases on CD-ROM, subscribing to a fewe-journals, scanning a few documents, or creatingAdobe Acrobat files and installing these on anintranet. But this scenario is changing at a snailspace, and it has to gain momentum to survive in thecompetitive world.DL initiatives in India were started basically for
preservation of the art, culture and heritage of thecountry. The categorization of DL initiatives in Indiamay be listed as follows.
Initiatives at the government level
Both the Union Government and the state govern-ments of India have taken considerable initiativestowards the development of DLs. Support ofGovernment of India towards DL initiatives-policyDL initiatives in India
The situation in India regarding DLs is very peculiar.Generally, the use of Information Technology (IT)and Information and Communication Technology(ICT) in libraries in India is concentrated inuniversities, Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs),tives as part of the Universal Library Project(www.ulib.org) spearheaded by Prof. Raj Reddyand Carnegie Mellon University.The current status of scanning centres of DLI
shows that approx 24.521 million pages have beenscanned at various centres in India. It shows thatapproximately 80,240 books have been scanned(Table 1).issues: The Long-Term National IT Policy (NationalTask Force on IT and Software Development, 2003)shows us the commitment of the Government ofIndia to provide information to users in digitalform. The responsibility of envisioning, developing,and sustaining functional hybrid and virtual libraryand information systems and services rests on thelibrary and information profession.
DL of IndiaThere is a mission to create a portal for the digitallibrary of India (DLI) piloted by the Office of thePrincipal Scientific Advisor to the Government ofIndia, Ministry of Communication and InformationTechnology (MCIT) with IISc and Carnegie MellonUniversity, USA, as partners.The mission is to create a portal for the DLI which
will foster creativity and free access to all humanknowledge. As a first step in realizing this mission,it is proposed to create the DL with a free-to-read,searchable collection of one million books, pre-dominantly in Indian languages, available to every-one over the Internet. This portal will also becomean aggregator of all the knowledge and digitalcontents created by other DL initiatives in India.This portal would provide a gateway to Indian DLs inscience, arts, culture, music, movies, traditionalmedicine, palm leaves and many more. The resultwill be a unique resource accessible to anyone inthe world 24 7, without regard to socioeconomicbackground or nationality.One of the goals of the DLI is to provide support
for full text indexing and searching based on opticalcharacter recognition (OCR) technologies, whereavailable. The availability of online search allowsusers to locate relevant information quickly andreliably thus enhancing students success in theirresearch endeavours. This 24 7 resource wouldalso provide an excellent test bed for languageprocessing research in areas such as machinetranslation, OCR, summarization, speech and hand-writing recognition, intelligent indexing, and in-formation retrieval in Indian languages.It is expected that the DLI will be mirrored at
several locations worldwide so as to protect theintegrity and availability of the data. The DLI will
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Digital libraries initiatives in India 163Language No of books No. of pages
English 49,674 17,456,701Telugu 14,063 2,804,200Hindi 6318 1,458,386Urdu 2977 719,523Tamil 1550 396,021Sanskrit 1485 510,340Persian 1000 245,727Multi 699 198,158Others 704 220,350Arabic 617 198,552Kannada 586 140,585Marathi 363 90,947German 121 46,803French 63 24,770Oriya 5 6978Bengali 4 713Spanish 4 17Italian 3 1172Greek 1 539Gujarati 1 52Irish 1 538Russian 1 73VidVidwiforGoanstrIndalsna
Figures by languageTable 1 Number of books and pages scanned, bylanguage.yanidhiyanidhi began as a pilot project in the year 2000th support from the National Information System
Science and Technology (NISSAT) and thevernment of Indias Department of Scientificd Industrial Research (DSIR). Vidyanidhi demon-ated the feasibility of e-theses programmes inia. With support from the Ford Foundation ando from Microsoft India, Vidyanidhi is evolving as ational initiative.Vidyanidhi (meaning Treasure of Knowledge innskrit) is Indias premier DL initiative to facilitatee creation, archiving and accessing of doctoraleses. Vidyanidhi is an information infrastructure,L, a portal of resources, tools and facilities forctoral research in India. Vidyanidhi is envisionedevolve as a national repository and a consortiume-theses through participation and partnership
th universities, academic institutions and otherke holders. Vidyanidhi enhances access to Indianeses and enlarges the reach and audience forian doctoral research works.The mission of Vidyanidhi project is to
develop a repository for Indian doctoral theses,digitize, archive and improve access to doctoraltheses in India,
flebgroups against one group in International Patentssification (IPC), e.g. AK61K35/78 related todicinal plants. Present status of TKDL is re-cted in Table 2.andsuvative structured classification system for therpose of systematic arrangement, disseminationretrieval has been evolved for about 10,500Knonoe international languages which are English,rman, French, Japanese and Spanish. Traditionalwledge Resource Classification (TKRC), an in-Ayufivowledge from the existing literature related torveda, Unani and Siddha, in digitized format inknokn make theses available online (as per the restric-tions desired by the doctoral students) andhelp enhance the visibility of Indian doctoralresearch,
offer tools and resources to strengthen andaugment the research capacities of doctoralstudents and universities,
enhance the quality of doctoral research in Indiaby developing and using standard formats andtemplates,
mould best practices in scholarship and scho-larly writing among students, and
prepare the doctoral students in e-publishing,e-scholarship and DLs by offering training pro-grammes and online tutorials.
The Vidyanidhi DL is conceived as having twolayersmetadata database and full text of theses.They are currently focusing on building both theselayers. Currently it has nearly 50,000 records in themetadata database and 300 full text theses. TheVidyanidhi metadata database is a truly multi-lingual database with records in English and Indianlanguages as well. Vidyanidhi has implemented theUnicode standard for Indian languages and scripts.
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is acollaborative project between the National Insti-tute of Science Communication and InformationResources (NISCAIR), the Council of Scientific andIndustrial Research (CSIR) of the Ministry of Scienceand Technology, and the Department of Ayurveda,Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeo-pathy (AYUSH) of the Ministry of Health and FamilyWelfare, which is being implemented at theNational Institute of Science Communication andInformation Resources (NISCAIR). An inter-disciplin-ary team of traditional medicine (Ayurveda, Unani,Siddha, Yoga) experts, patent examiners, IT ex-perts, scientists and technical officers are involvedin creation of TKDL for Indian systems of medicine.The project TKDL involves documentation of thewledge available in public domain on traditional
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P.K. Jain, P. Babbar164At present, TKDL contains 11.0 million pages ofinformation in five international languages.
GyandootGyandoot (meaning messenger of knowledge) isa new intranet-based DL in the Dhar district of thestate of Madhya Pradesh connecting rural publiccybercafes. A corresponding website is an exten-sion of Gyandoot intranet providing giving globalaccess via a portal. Gyandoot was conceived in adiscussion with the Secretary, Information Technol-ogy, Government of Madhya Pradesh on November11, 1999. The pilot project was launched onNovember 29, 1999 and it was officially commis-sioned on January 1, 2000. Thus, from concept tocommissioning, the entire Gyandoot DL project wasexecuted in the short space of 51 days for a cost of$57,000 USD.Gyandoot is a unique form of government to
citizen (G2C) DL activity to address the hardshipimposed by transaction costs associated withgovernment services. Located in central India,agriculture and industry are the twin mainstays ofbusiness. Close to four thousand million rupees(90M USD) worth of agricultural commodities aretransacted annually, principally soya, cotton, andwheat. Indore is the largest automobile centre inAsia. The local elected governing council (DistrictPanchayat, Dhar) is enabling over half a millionrural citizens affordable access to various govern-ment and market-related needs through state-of-the-art IT kiosks.
Table 2 Present status of TKDL.
Discipline Target (no. offormulations)
Ayurveda 59,000 59,000Unani 77,000 51,000Siddha 10,000 Yoga 1500
Total 147,500 110,000Samadhan KendrasIn order to turn food producers/consumers intoinformation producers/consumers, the Indian gov-ernment is making efforts for the establishment ofSamadhan Kendras (SKF Rural Support Centres)and Soochana Gumtis (SGInformation Kiosks)in the list of industries eligible for loans undervarious programs. DLs are being used for the publicgrievances redressal systems of the state govern-ments through SG facilitation counters in govern-ment offices.Indian National Digital Library in EngineeringScience and Technology (INDEST) consortium
The Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD) has set-up the INDEST consortium on therecommendation made by the expert group ap-pointed by the ministry under the chairmanship ofthe Prof. N. Balakrishnan. The Ministry providesfunds required for subscription to electronic re-sources for 38 institutions including IISc, IITs, NITs,IIMs and a few other centrally funded governmentinstitutions through the consortium headquartersset-up at the IIT Delhi. Also, 44 government orgovernment-aided engineering colleges and tech-nical departments in universities have joined theconsortium with financial support from the All-IndiaCouncil for Technical Education (AICTE). Moreover,the INDEST Consortium, as an open-ended proposi-tion, welcomes other institutions to join it on theirown for sharing benefits it offers in terms of highlydiscounted rates of subscription and better termsof agreement with the publishers. All electronicresources being subscribed are available from thepublishers websites. The consortium has an activemailing list and a website hosted at the IIT,...