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  • Documentation – User’s Guide

    Differential Interferometry and Geocoding Software – DIFF&GEO

    Geocoding and Image Registration

    Version 1.6 – May 2011

    GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Worbstrasse 225, CH-3073 Gümligen, Switzerland

    tel: +41-31-951 70 05, fax: +41-31-951 70 08, email: gamma@gamma-rs.ch

  • Differential Interferometry and Geocoding Software- DIFF&GEO (Geocoding and Image Registration)

    - 2 -

    Table of contents

    1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 5 2. GEOCODING THEORY ................................................................................................................................. 5 3. GEOCODING PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................................... 7 4. GENERATION OF DEM PARAMETER FILE ................................................................................................. 10 5. DEM PRE-PROCESSING ............................................................................................................................ 12 6. GENERATION OF THE GEOCODING LOOK-UP TABLE.................................................................................. 12

    6.1. Look-up table based on DEM / ellipsoid in map geometry ........................................................... 13 6.2. Look-up table based on InSAR-derived DEM in radar geometry ................................................. 17

    7. FORWARD TRANSFORMATION USING THE PROGRAM GEOCODE................................................................ 17 8. REFINEMENT OF GEOCODING LOOK-UP TABLE ......................................................................................... 18

    8.1. Offset computation ........................................................................................................................ 18 8.2. Estimation of fine registration offset polynomial .......................................................................... 19 8.3. Refinement of look-up table........................................................................................................... 20

    9. FINAL GEOCODING................................................................................................................................... 20 9.1. Backward geocoding..................................................................................................................... 21 9.2. Forward geocoding....................................................................................................................... 21

    10. ADDITIONAL GEOCODING TOOLS ........................................................................................................ 22 10.1. Coordinate transformation tools ................................................................................................... 22 10.2. Map projection transformation tools ............................................................................................ 22 10.3. Computation of DEM normal / gradient direction........................................................................ 23 10.4. Computation of look direction....................................................................................................... 23 10.5. Conversion of data from geocoded images to text ........................................................................ 23 10.6. Computation of normalization area in slant-range geometry ....................................................... 23

    11. CO-REGISTRATION OF TWO SLCS USING A LOOKUP TABLE ................................................................. 24 11.1. Generation of multi-look images................................................................................................... 24 11.2. Generation of a DEM in radar geometry ...................................................................................... 25 11.3. Generation of the co-registration lookup table ............................................................................. 25 11.4. Refinement of the initial co-registration lookup table................................................................... 25 11.5. Initial resampling of SLC-2 to reference SLC geometry ............................................................... 26 11.6. Further refinement of the co-registration...................................................................................... 26 11.7. New resampling of SLC-2 to reference SLC geometry.................................................................. 26

    12. CO-REGISTRATION OF TWO MLIS USING A LOOKUP TABLE ................................................................. 27 13. MULTI-SOURCE IMAGE REGISTRATION................................................................................................ 27

    13.1. Transformation of one image to the geometry of the reference image.......................................... 28 13.2. Co-registration of the two datasets ............................................................................................... 28 13.3. Resampling.................................................................................................................................... 28

    14. MEASURING RANGE AND AZIMUTH OFFSETS ON A REGULAR GRID IN RADAR GEOMETRY.................... 29 15. MEASURING RANGE AND AZIMUTH OFFSETS ON A REGULAR GRID IN MAP GEOMETRY........................ 30 16. ADDITIONAL TOOLS FOR GEOCODING AND IMAGE REGISTRATION ............................................................... 32

    16.1. Generation of parameter files for already geocoded images ............................................................. 32 PROCESSING EXAMPLES .................................................................................................................................... 33 A. PREPARATION OF DEM FOR GEOCODING WITH DIFF&GEO................................................................... 34

    A.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................... 34

  • Differential Interferometry and Geocoding Software- DIFF&GEO (Geocoding and Image Registration)

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    A.2. Generation of DEM parameter file ............................................................................................... 35 A.3. Correction for missing values ....................................................................................................... 36 A.4. Mosaicing SRTM DEMs................................................................................................................ 38 A.5. Transformation of map projection ................................................................................................ 38

    B. GTC-GEOCODING WITH DEM IN MAP COORDINATES.............................................................................. 39 B.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................... 40 B.2. Generation of MLI intensity image ............................................................................................... 40 B.3. Transformation of DEM projection............................................................................................... 41 B.4. Generation of initial geocoding lookup table................................................................................ 43 B.5. Resampling of simulated SAR image to radar geometry ............................................................... 44 B.6 Computation of offsets and generation of registration polynomial............................................... 45 B.7. Refinement of geocoding lookup table .......................................................................................... 47 B.8. Backward geocoding from SAR to map coordinates ..................................................................... 48 B.9. Forward geocoding from map to radar coordinates..................................................................... 49

    C. GEC-GEOCODING WITHOUT DEM .......................................................................................................... 50 C.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................... 50 C.2. Generation of DEM/MAP parameter file ...................................................................................... 51 C.3. Generation of geocoding lookup table .......................................................................................... 51 C.4. Backward geocoding from SAR to map coordinates ..................................................................... 52

    D. GEOCODING WITH INSAR HEIGHTS ......................................................................................................... 54 D.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................... 54 D.2. Generation of DEM/MAP projection ............................................................................................ 55 D.3. Generation of geocoding lookup table .......................................................................................... 55 D.4. Forward geocoding from SAR to map coordinates ....................................................................... 56

    E. MULTI-SOURCE IMAGE REGISTRATION – EXAMPLE

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