dietary supplements targeted to enhance workouts and the ... dietary supplements targeted to enhance
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Dietary Supplements Targeted
to Enhance Workouts and the
Matthew Vukovich, PhD FACSM
Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences
South Dakota State University
Dietary Supplements and
Ergogenic Aids • Dietary supplement
– a product intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains
one or more of the following dietary ingredients:
• a vitamin; a mineral; an herb or other botanical; an amino
• a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet
by increasing the total dietary intake; or
• a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or
combination of any ingredient described above
• Ergogenic Aid
– Any substance, process, or procedure that may, or is perceived
to, enhance performance through improved strength, speed,
response time, or the endurance of the athlete.
• Practice varies with type and level of sports
• Knowledge obtained from internet, discussion
boards, friends and coaches.
• 50% to 90% of athletes use dietary
• Reasons for use – Improved performance
– More muscle
– Poor diet
– Meets additional demands of training.
Sports Supplement Categories
• During Workout
• Enhance Training & Performance
• Natural Testosterone Support
• Growth Hormones Boosters
Efficacy and Safety
• Factors complicating the discussion of efficacy and safety… – Individual versus multiple ingredients
– Content versus label claim
– Contaminates – intentional and unintentional
– Food, drug, supplement interaction
– Men and women
– Age of individual (young athletes versus master athletes)
– Studies funded by supplement companies.
Protein • Protein needs of athletes can be as high as 2 to 3 times the
– 0.8 g/kg/day 2.4 g/kg/day
– Must consume adequate energy to support protein synthesis.
• Positive net protein balance occurs when protein is consumed
throughout the day.
• Protein consumed before exercise and after exercise produces the
same increase in net positive protein balance.
– Resistance training augments the increase in net protein balance
• Whey protein produces positive changes in testosterone, growth
hormone, and IGF-I, promoting a positive net protein balance.
– Not observed with soy protein.
• Whey proteins promote a greater rise in whole-body protein
synthesis than do casein proteins, the casein proteins attenuate
whole-body proteolysis; the result is a greater retention of protein
with casein than with whey.
Daily protein distribution - typical ? -
na b ol
maximum rate of protein synthesis
15 g 65 g
A skewed daily protein distribution fails
to maximize potential for muscle growth
Daily protein distribution - Optimal -
maximum rate of protein synthesis
30 g 30g 30 g
Repeated maximal stimulation of protein synthesis increase / maintenance of muscle mass
~ 1.3 g/kg/day
• Safety Concerns
– Consumer Reports – heavy metals
– Kidney – no health risks with normal renal
– Bone – Improves bone density.
• Marketed to
– Increase energy, focus and endurance.
– Stimulants • Common ingredient is caffeine
• Dosages range from 50mg to 300mg per serving.
• May contain ephedrine, oxilofrine, or 1,3- dimethylamylamine
– Little to no support for other ingredients.
– Significant safety concerns.
Claims and Research • b-alanine -buffering agent - amino acid derivative increases muscle
carnosine content, considered rate limiting for carnosine formation.
– 5g/d for 4 weeks
• Betaine – derivative of glycine – metabolized to di-methylglycine
(DMG) and sarcosine –
– Proposed to stimulate lipolysis, reduce lactic acid, inhibit
lipogenesis, stimulate protein synthesis, stimulate GH & IGF-I
release, stimulate insulin receptor signaling.
– 1g to 9 g/day. Research does not support claims.
• Taurine – facilitates Ca2+ dependent excitation-contraction processes,
– 5 g/day does not alter muscle taurine content or substrate
• N-Acetyl Cysteine- antioxidant –
– chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on
Claims and Research • Citrullline – increases arginine concentration, increase NO reduces
– 3 grams to 9 grams
– reduces time to exhaustion (ergolytic - hinders performance).
• BCAA - no acute affect at that dose.
• Huperzine A – promotes immune and nervous system function
memory Alzheimer’s disease.
– 0.2 mg to .8 mg ( 200 mcg to 800 mcg) – no improvement in
• Piper Nigrum – Black Pepper – antioxidant, antimicrobial memory
Caffeine’s Proven Effects – Increases lipid oxidation
– Spares muscle glycogen
– Increases time to fatigue
• Prolonged submaximal (> 90 min)
• Sustained high-intensity (20-60 min)
• Short-duration supra-max (1-5 min)
– Likely beneficial in endurance sports
– No clear benefit in stop-&-go and strength/power events
– ~2 to mg/kg dose
Caffeine in Endurance Events o Running
o 4.2-sec faster 1.5-km
o 1-3% faster 5-km
o 24-sec faster 8-km
o 50-sec faster 10-km military pack march
o No change in 21-km race
o Improved treadmill time-to-exhaustion in marathoners
o 3.5% higher mean power in 40km race
– Increased heart rate, arrhythmias, and
– adolescents who sustained a recent TBI
while playing sports had higher odds of
recent energy drinks consumption than
abstainers (Ilie, 2016)
– Decreases fine motor control
• Strength/Power Athletes
– Same as pre-workout – energy
• Endurance Athletes
– Carbohydrate – sports drinks, gels, etc.
Enhance Training &
Performance • Strength & Power
• Loading phase – 20 g/day for 3 days,
• Maintenance – 3g/day
• More effective in trained vs. recreational vs
• Performance improvements minimal
• Improves training adaptations
Enhance Training &
Performance • Endurance
– Various cocktail of ingredients with no
supportive research. • Caffeine, Ciwujia, DMG (n,n-dimethylglycine),
Ginseng, MCT (medium chain triglycerides), Cordyceps sinensis (extracted from non-toxic mushrooms) Rhodiola Rosea (arctic root or golden root)
– Various diet modifications • LCHF diets
• Paleo diets
• Train low– Low CHO training days
• Considered one of the most valuable medicinal fungi
in the Orient.
• It is naturally distributed in the eastern extension area
of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, at an altitude over 4000
• Parcell, et al. 2004 – 3g/d- 5-weeks
– 22 trained cyclists
– VO2peak, VT, time trial
– No effect on endurance capacity or performance
• Earnest, et al. 2004. – 14 days 3g/d to 1g/day – 17 competitive cyclists – VO2peak, TTE, peak
power, – No effect on
• Also known as Arctic root,
Golden root, or Crenulin
• Found in mountain
regions of Siberia and
• Has a reputation of…
– Stimulating the nervous
– Decreasing depression
– Enhancing work
– Eliminating fatigue
– Preventing high altitude
• DeBock, 2004
– No acute effect on VO2
– After 4wks – no effect on
VO2 or TTF
Adaptogens: Criteria for Defi