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  • Dietary Supplements Targeted

    to Enhance Workouts and the

    Health Implications

    Matthew Vukovich, PhD FACSM

    Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences

    South Dakota State University

  • Dietary Supplements and

    Ergogenic Aids • Dietary supplement

    – a product intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains

    one or more of the following dietary ingredients:

    • a vitamin; a mineral; an herb or other botanical; an amino


    • a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet

    by increasing the total dietary intake; or

    • a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or

    combination of any ingredient described above

    • Ergogenic Aid

    – Any substance, process, or procedure that may, or is perceived

    to, enhance performance through improved strength, speed,

    response time, or the endurance of the athlete.

  • Supplement Use

    • Practice varies with type and level of sports

    nutrition practice

    • Knowledge obtained from internet, discussion

    boards, friends and coaches.

    • 50% to 90% of athletes use dietary


    • Reasons for use – Improved performance

    – More muscle

    – Poor diet

    – Meets additional demands of training.

  • Sports Supplement Categories

    • Protein

    • Pre-Workout

    • During Workout

    • Post-Workout

    • Stacks

    • Enhance Training & Performance

    • Natural Testosterone Support

    • Growth Hormones Boosters

  • Efficacy and Safety

    • Factors complicating the discussion of efficacy and safety… – Individual versus multiple ingredients

    – Content versus label claim

    – Contaminates – intentional and unintentional

    – Spiking

    – Food, drug, supplement interaction

    – Men and women

    – Age of individual (young athletes versus master athletes)

    – Studies funded by supplement companies.

  • Protein • Protein needs of athletes can be as high as 2 to 3 times the


    – 0.8 g/kg/day  2.4 g/kg/day

    – Must consume adequate energy to support protein synthesis.

    • Positive net protein balance occurs when protein is consumed

    throughout the day.

    • Protein consumed before exercise and after exercise produces the

    same increase in net positive protein balance.

    – Resistance training augments the increase in net protein balance

    • Whey protein produces positive changes in testosterone, growth

    hormone, and IGF-I, promoting a positive net protein balance.

    – Not observed with soy protein.

    • Whey proteins promote a greater rise in whole-body protein

    synthesis than do casein proteins, the casein proteins attenuate

    whole-body proteolysis; the result is a greater retention of protein

    with casein than with whey.

  • Daily protein distribution - typical ? -

    Total Protein

    90 g

    C at

    ab ol

    is m


    na b ol

    is m

    10 g

    maximum rate of protein synthesis

    15 g 65 g

    A skewed daily protein distribution fails

    to maximize potential for muscle growth

  • Daily protein distribution - Optimal -

    C at

    ab ol

    is m

    A na

    b ol

    is m

    maximum rate of protein synthesis

    30 g 30g 30 g

    Total Protein

    90 g

    Repeated maximal stimulation of protein synthesis  increase / maintenance of muscle mass

    ~ 1.3 g/kg/day

  • Protein Supplements

    • Safety Concerns

    – Consumer Reports – heavy metals

    – Kidney – no health risks with normal renal


    – Bone – Improves bone density.

  • Pre-Workout Supplements

    • Marketed to

    – Increase energy, focus and endurance.

    – Stimulants • Common ingredient is caffeine

    • Dosages range from 50mg to 300mg per serving.

    • May contain ephedrine, oxilofrine, or 1,3- dimethylamylamine

    – Little to no support for other ingredients.

    – Significant safety concerns.

  • Claims and Research • b-alanine -buffering agent - amino acid derivative increases muscle

    carnosine content, considered rate limiting for carnosine formation.

    – 5g/d for 4 weeks

    • Betaine – derivative of glycine – metabolized to di-methylglycine

    (DMG) and sarcosine –

    – Proposed to stimulate lipolysis, reduce lactic acid, inhibit

    lipogenesis, stimulate protein synthesis, stimulate GH & IGF-I

    release, stimulate insulin receptor signaling.

    – 1g to 9 g/day. Research does not support claims.

    • Taurine – facilitates Ca2+ dependent excitation-contraction processes,


    – 5 g/day does not alter muscle taurine content or substrate


    • N-Acetyl Cysteine- antioxidant –

    – chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on


  • Claims and Research • Citrullline – increases arginine concentration, increase NO reduces


    – 3 grams to 9 grams

    – reduces time to exhaustion (ergolytic - hinders performance).

    • BCAA - no acute affect at that dose.

    • Huperzine A – promotes immune and nervous system function

    memory Alzheimer’s disease.

    – 0.2 mg to .8 mg ( 200 mcg to 800 mcg) – no improvement in


    • Piper Nigrum – Black Pepper – antioxidant, antimicrobial memory

    Alzheimer’s disease

  • Caffeine’s Proven Effects – Increases lipid oxidation

    – Spares muscle glycogen

    – Increases time to fatigue

    • Prolonged submaximal (> 90 min)

    • Sustained high-intensity (20-60 min)

    • Short-duration supra-max (1-5 min)

    – Likely beneficial in endurance sports

    – No clear benefit in stop-&-go and strength/power events

    – ~2 to mg/kg dose

  • Caffeine in Endurance Events o Running

    o 4.2-sec faster 1.5-km

    o 1-3% faster 5-km

    o 24-sec faster 8-km

    o 50-sec faster 10-km military pack march

    o No change in 21-km race

    o Improved treadmill time-to-exhaustion in marathoners

    o Cycling

    o 3.5% higher mean power in 40km race

  • Pre-Workout Supplements

    • Safety

    – Increased heart rate, arrhythmias, and

    blood pressure

    – adolescents who sustained a recent TBI

    while playing sports had higher odds of

    recent energy drinks consumption than

    abstainers (Ilie, 2016)

    – Decreases fine motor control

  • During Workout/Training

    • Strength/Power Athletes

    – Same as pre-workout – energy

    – Protein

    • Endurance Athletes

    – Carbohydrate – sports drinks, gels, etc.

    – caffeine

  • Enhance Training &

    Performance • Strength & Power

    – Creatine

    • Loading phase – 20 g/day for 3 days,

    • Maintenance – 3g/day

    • More effective in trained vs. recreational vs


    • Performance improvements minimal

    • Improves training adaptations

  • Enhance Training &

    Performance • Endurance

    – Various cocktail of ingredients with no

    supportive research. • Caffeine, Ciwujia, DMG (n,n-dimethylglycine),

    Ginseng, MCT (medium chain triglycerides), Cordyceps sinensis (extracted from non-toxic mushrooms) Rhodiola Rosea (arctic root or golden root)

    – Various diet modifications • LCHF diets

    • Paleo diets

    • Train low– Low CHO training days

  • Cordyceps sinensis

    • Considered one of the most valuable medicinal fungi

    in the Orient.

    • It is naturally distributed in the eastern extension area

    of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, at an altitude over 4000

    m high.

    • Parcell, et al. 2004 – 3g/d- 5-weeks

    – 22 trained cyclists

    – VO2peak, VT, time trial

    – No effect on endurance capacity or performance

    • Earnest, et al. 2004. – 14 days 3g/d to 1g/day – 17 competitive cyclists – VO2peak, TTE, peak

    power, – No effect on


  • Rhodiola rosea

    • Also known as Arctic root,

    Golden root, or Crenulin

    • Found in mountain

    regions of Siberia and


    • Has a reputation of…

    – Stimulating the nervous


    – Decreasing depression

    – Enhancing work


    – Eliminating fatigue

    – Preventing high altitude


    • DeBock, 2004

    – 200mg/d

    – No acute effect on VO2

    or TTF

    – After 4wks – no effect on

    VO2 or TTF

  • Adaptogens: Criteria for Defi


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