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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    DICTIONARYCHEMISTRY

    A B C D E F GH I K L M N O P Q R S U

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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    A Absolute Error, The difference between the approximate and exact value in anycalculation.Accuracy, In measurement indicates that a set of measurements are close to the trueanswer, though they are not necessarily precise.Acid, Compounds that contain hydrogen (H #1) and when dissolved in water (H2O),they increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+ (hydronium ions H3O+). Acids are proton donors. Substances with a pH less than 7 are considered to be acidic.Actinides, The fourteen elements in the bottom row of the inner-transition elements ofthe periodic table that follow the element actinium (Ac #89). Some reference sourcesinclude actinium in this series others do not. For these elements the 5f orbital is thefilling orbital. This series is a sub-series of the transition metals.Alkali Earth Metal (Alkaline-Earth Metals) , Elements in the second column (fromthe left) of the periodic table all fall into this series. These elements are in general white,differing by shades of color or casts; they are malleable, extrudable and machinable.These elements may be made into rods, wire or plate. Also, these elements are lessreactive than the alkali metals and have higher melting points and boiling points.Alkali Metal, A metal in the first column of the periodic table (i.e., lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium). With the exception of francium, thesemetals are all soft and silvery. They may be readily fused and volatilized with theirmelting and boiling points becoming lower with increasing atomic mass. They are thestrongest electropositive metals. These elements react vigorously, even violently withwater.Alpha Particle, Consists of the nucleus of an atom of helium (two protons and twoneutrons) and is sometimes emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part of thoseatoms' radioactive decay. Alpha particles have an energy range of 4-8 MeV. This energyis dissipated in only a few centimeters of air or less than 0.005mm of aluminum (Al).ngstrom (), One ten-billionth of a meter (10-10m or 0.0000000001 m) or 1/10th of ananometer.Angular Momentum Quantum Number , See azimuthal quantum number

    Anion, A negatively charged ion.Antimatter (antiparticle) , Species of subatomic particles that have the same mass andspin as normal particles, however, they have opposite electrical charges from theirnormal matter counterparts. In the case of antineutrons they are opposite of neutrons inmagnetic moment. Positrons, which are the counterpart to electrons, have a positivecharge and antiprotons have a negative charge. Photons are their own antimattercounterpart. When a particle of matter collides with a particle of antimatter, both particles are destroyed and their masses are converted to photons of equivalent energy.

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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    Asbestosis , A lung disease (pneumoconiosis) resulting from inhaling fibers of asbestosand marked by interstitial fibrosis of the lung.Atom , The smallest possible unit of matter that still maintains an element's identityduring chemical reactions. Atoms contain one or more protons and neutrons (except

    hydrogen (H), which normally contains no neutrons) in a nucleus around which one ormore electrons revolve.Atomic Mass (Atomic Mass Average), The average mass of all nuclides of an elementdetermined by the proportions in which each nuclide of the element are present withinthe earth and its atmosphere.Atomic Mass Unit (AMU), A mass unit that is exactly 1/12th the mass of a carbon 12(C12) atom (approximately 1.67E-24g).Atomic Number, The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This determines anelement's structure, properties and location on the periodic table of elements.Atomic Radius, One-half the distance between two adjacent atoms in crystals ofelements. This varies according to interatomic forces.Atomic Volume, The atomic mass of an element divided by its density.Avogadro, Amadeo (1776-1856),An Italian chemist who first stated the principle behind stoichiometry in 1811. Also see Avogadro's Number and Molarity, Molality And Normality. Avogadro's Number , This is the number of atoms in a 12g sample of carbon-12 (C12).This is equal to 6.0221367E23 atoms. It is named for Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro(1776-1856) who first stated the principle in 1811.Azimuthal Quantum Number (angular momentum quantum number) , Thequantum number that distinguishes orbitals of givenn having different shapes. This can be any interger value from 0 ton-1.

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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    BBACT (Best Available Control Technology), Guidelines for municipal wastecombustors developed by EPA in 1986 that were intended to add consistency andreduce delay and confusion in the permitting process.Barns, A measurement of area equal to E -24 cm2.Base, Compounds that when dissolved in water increase the concentration of hydroxideions (OH). Bases are proton acceptors. Substances with a pH greater than 7 areconsidered to basic.Beta Particle , a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part ofthose atoms' radioactive decay. Positively charged beta particles are positrons andnegatively charged beta particles are electrons. Beta particles can cause burns and areharmful to living tissues, however, protection is afforded by a thin sheet of metal.Boiling Point, The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to orslightly greater than the atmospheric pressure of the environment. For water at sea level,its boiling point is 100C (212F).

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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    CCAA (Clean Air Act), Passed by congress to have the air safe enough to protect the public's health by 5/31/1975. It was amended in 1990 to require EPA to develop morestringent and specific regulations for air emissions.Caplan's syndrome , Pneumoconiosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis.CAS, Chicago Academy of Science; Chemical Abstracts Service (which assigns CAS Numbers to chemicals).Cation, A positively charged ion.Ceiling, The exposure limit for a substance that should (or in the case of OSHA PEL's"shall") not be exceeded. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then a 15-minutetime weighted average is used.Centigrade (Celsius), The scale for measuring temperature used internationally wherethe freezing point of water is zero and the boiling point of water at sea level is 100degrees. To convert from centigrade into Fahrenheit, multiply the centigradetemperature by 1.8 then add 32 to the product (C*1.8+32=F). To convert fromFahrenheit to centigrade, subtract 32 and then divide by 1.8 ((F-32)/1.8).CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and LiabilityAct, Superfund Act), Is responsible for the "cradle to grave law" that holds thegenerator of waste responsible for proper waste disposal and provides for cleanup of themost contaminated sites by the government, with the cost of cleanup being charged tothe responsible parties. Basically a generator becomes responsible for waste from it'sinception until it has been destroyed.Chemiluminescence, The emission of absorbed energy as light as the result of achemical reaction. This occurs in thousands of compounds both organic and inorganic.Chemical glow sticks and fireflies are examples of this.Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion, The ratio of change in length per degreecentigrade compared to the base length at zero degrees centigrade. The unit ofmeasurement is centimeter per centimeter per degree centigrade (cm/cm/C). Thismeasurement means that for every centimeter of base length, the length will change Xcentimeters for every change of one degree centigrade.

    Compound, a substance composed of atoms or ions of two or more elements that arechemically combined. Elements in a compound are present in definite proportions bymass and are bonded with each other in a specific manner.Conduction,Thermal conduction, the transfer of heat between two solid materials that are physicallytouching each other.

    Electrical conduction, the transfer of electrical current through a solid or liquid.Convection, The movement of heat by a moving liquid or gas. Convection results fromthe differences in the densities of a material at different temperatures. As a liquid or gas

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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    raises in temperature, it becomes less dense and thus lighter thereby rising above itscooler and denser counterparts, which in turn sink.Covalent Radius , A chemical bond between atoms formed by the sharing of valenceelectrons.

    Cross section , The effective size of a nucleus in capturing a thermal neutron (slowneutron). Larger cross sections have a greater probability of neutron capture.Crystal Structure (crystal system) , The atomic arrangement of the atoms of