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  • The Sakya Schoolof Tibetan Buddhism

    A History

    Dhongthog Rinpoche

    Translated by Sam van Schaik

    The Sakya School of T

    ibetan BuddhismDhongth

    og

    Rinpo

    che

    A History

    Since its 1976 publication in Tibetan, Dhongthog Rin-poches history of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism has been a key reference for specialists in Tibetan studies. Now English read-ers can consult it as well through Sam van Schaiks authoritative, fully annotated, and accessible translation.

    The book begins by examining the development of Buddhism in India and Tibet, setting the scene for the Khon familys establishment of the Sakya school in the eleventh century. Rinpoche subsequently pro-vides accounts of the transmission of the Lamdre (the heart of Sakya con-templative practice and other major streams of esoteric instruction) and the Ngor and Tsar branches of the Sakya tradition. Highlights also include surveys of great Sakya and nonsectarian masters such as Rong-tonpa, Gorampa, Jamyang Khyen-tse Wangpo, and Khyentse Chokyi Lodro. This traditional history, com-piled both from earlier histories and from the authors direct connection to masters of the tradition, is an enormously valuable resource for the study of Tibetan Buddhism.

    Dhongthog Rinpoche Tenpai Gyaltsen (19332015), who went by the name T. G. Dhong thog, was a preeminent scholar of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism. He trained in eastern Tibet in Derge under Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro and was the head teacher of Dhongthog Monastery in Garze. Following the Chinese occupation of Tibet, Rinpoche left in 1957 for India, where he preserved Tibetan culture and continued his scholar-ship at Tibet House in New Delhi. In 1979, he moved to Seattle and worked closely with the nonsec-tarian savant Dezhung Rinpoche and founded the Sapan Institute to support his scholarly and publish-ing activities. The most well known among his numerous works are his English-Tibetan dictionary (1988) and his unique history of the Sakya school (1976). Married with three children, he passed away in Seattle on January 13, 2015.

    Sam van Schaik received his PhD in Tibetan Buddhist literature from the University of Manchester, England. He currently works at the British Library in London, research-ing early Buddhist manuscripts and the history of Tibet and Central Asia. He is the author of several books, including Tibet: A History and Approaching the Great Perfection.

    ISBN 978- 1- 61429- 252- 4 US $39.95 | CAN $53.95

    Z

    T I B E TA N B U D D H I S M

  • The Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Dhongthog Rinpoche

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • The Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism!w!

    A History

    Dhongthog RinpocheTranslated by Sam van Schaik

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Wisdom Publications199 Elm Street

    Somerville, MA 02144 USAwisdompubs.org

    2016 Sam van SchaikAll rights reserved.

    No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photography, recording, or by any information storage

    and retrieval system or technologies now known or later developed, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication DataNames: Dhongthog, T. G., 19332015, author. | Van Schaik, Sam, translator.

    Title: The Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism : a history / Dhongthog Rinpoche ; Translated by Sam van Schaik.

    Other titles: Byang phyogs Thub pai rgyal tshab Dpal ldan Sa-skya-pai bstan pa rin po che ji ltar byung bai lo rgyus rab byams zhing du snyan pai

    sgra dbyangs zhes bya ba bzhugs so. EnglishDescription: Somerville, MA : Wisdom Publications, 2016. | Includes

    bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2015037521| ISBN 1614292523 (hardcover : alk. paper) | ISBN

    1614292671 (ebook)Subjects: LCSH: Sa-skya-pa (SectHistory.

    Classification: LCC BQ7672.2 .D4813 2016 | DDC 294.3/92309dc23LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015037521

    ISBN 978- 1- 61429- 252- 4 ebook ISBN 978- 1- 61429- 267- 820 19 18 17 16 5 4 3 2 1

    Cover and interior design by Gopa & Ted2. Set in Diacritical Garamond Pro 11/14.1.Frontispiece photo by Kurt Smith. Author photo of Dhongthog Rinpoche by Kurt Smith.

    Author photo of Sam van Schaik by Imre Galambos.

    Wisdom Publications books are printed on acid- free paper and meet the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Production Guidelines

    for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources.

    Z This book was produced with environmental mindfulness. For more information, please visit wisdompubs.org/wisdom-environment.

    Printed in the United States of America.

    Please visit fscus.org.

    FPO

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Contents

    Foreword to the Translation by Lama Jampa Thaye viiTranslators Introduction 1

    Sweet Harmonies for Infinite Realms: The History of the Precious Teachings of the Glorious Sakyapas,

    the Regents of the Sage in the North

    Foreword by His Holiness Sakya Trizin 7Authors Preface 9 1. The Dharma in India and Tibet 13 2. The Sakya Family Lineage 53 3. The Lamdre 77 4. The Thirteen Golden Dharmas and the Protectors 107 5. The Ngor Tradition 125 6. Biographies of Great Scholars 135 7. The Tsar Tradition 159 8. The Essential Sakya Teachings 171 9. Masters of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 183 10. Conclusion 219

    Notes 235Bibliography 259Index 273About the Author 313

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Publishers Acknowledgment

    The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution of the Hershey Family Foundation toward the publication of this book.

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Foreword to the Translation by Lama Jampa Thaye

    It is with great pleasure that I introduce this fine English trans-lation of the History of the Sakya Tradition composed in 1976 by the emi-nent Tibetan scholar Dhongthog Rinpoche. Until now only brief accounts of this tradition, such as that authored by the late Chogye Trichen, have appeared in English. Now Dhongthog Rinpoche has presented Sakya his-tory in its full richness and glory.

    The present work commences with an examination of the development of Buddhism in India and Tibet, setting the scene for the establishment in the eleventh century of the Sakya school by the precious Khon family. Subsequently, Dhongthog Rinpoche provides magisterial accounts of the transmission of the Lamdre, the very heart of Sakya contemplative prac-tice, and other major streams of esoteric instruction such as the Thirteen Golden Dharmas and the ritual cycles of the greater and lesser Dharma protectors.

    As well as supplying accounts of the Ngor and Tsar branches of the Sakya tradition, Dhongthog Rinpoches history contains important material on the great Sakya masters such as Rongtongpa and Gorampa, who made an invaluable contribution to religious and intellectual life in Tibet and whose work is just beginning to be appreciated in the West. Fittingly the history concludes with a survey of the great Sakya and nonsectarian masters Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Khyentse Chokyi Lodro, whose labors did so much to ensure the continuing vitality of the Sakya tradition.

    With this work Dhongthog Rinpoche has performed a great service to all who cherish the Sakya tradition in particular and Buddhism in general. It will be hard to surpass his achievement. I would also like to congratulate Dr. van Schaik for his splendid translation and pray that it may contribute to the flourishing of our tradition in these modern times.

    Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Wisdom Publications, Inc. - Not for Distribution

  • Translators Introduction

    When Dhongthog Rinpoche completed his history of the Sakya school in 1976, he was living in New Delhi, India. He was born in 1933 in the eastern region of Tibet known as Kham, in the Trehor region, which is in the present- day Garze (Kardze) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in China. He was identified as the fifth in the tulku lineage of Dhongthog Monastery and given the religious name Tenpai Gyaltsen, Victory Ban-ner of the Teachings. Outside of Tibet he has often used a Westernized form of his name: T. G. Dhongthog. He studied under many teachers but counted twoNgawang Lodro Zhenpen Nyingpo (Khenchen Dampa) and Dzongsar Khyentse Jamyang Chokyi Lodroas his main teachers, studying for three years at Dzongsar Monastery under the latter. However, due the deterioration of the situation in eastern Tibet under the rule of the Chinese Communist Party, he chose to leave for India in 1957.

    While living in New Delhi, Dhongthog Rinpoche played several dif-ferent roles in the Tibetan exile community, often involved with the pres-ervation of Tibetan culture. For example, he worked closely with Lokesh Chandra, copying by hand texts that had been brought out of Tibet for new editions published in India. He also worked as the librarian of Tibet House in New Delhi, during which time he wrote several works, including the present history. Then in 1979 he accepted an invitation from Dagchen Rinpoche, the head of the Puntsog Palace of the Sakya family lineage, who was resident in Seattle with his family.

    In Seattle Dhongthog Rinpoche established the Sapan Center, named after the great scholar Sakya Paita, as a base for his activities. He con-tinued to write and worked closely with Dezhung Rinpoche before the latters death in 1987. The works written during Dhongthog Rinpoches time in Seattle attest to his wid

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