Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience - CORE ?· Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 1 (2011) 338–350…

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<ul><li><p>Ds</p><p>Sa</p><p>b</p><p>c</p><p>d</p><p>a</p><p>ARR3A</p><p>KfSVAAA</p><p>1</p><p>o(ue1wm</p><p>UT</p><p>1d</p><p>Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 1 (2011) 338 350</p><p>Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</p><p>Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience</p><p>jou rn al hom epa ge: ht tp : / /www.e lsev ier .com/ locate /dcn</p><p>evelopmental changes in the inferior frontal cortex for selectingemantic representations</p><p>hu-Hui Leea, James R. Boothb, Shiou-Yuan Chenc, Tai-Li Choua,d,</p><p>Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanDepartment of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USADepartment of Early Childhood Education, Taipei Municipal University of Education, Taipei, TaiwanNeurobiology and Cognitive Science Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan</p><p> r t i c l e i n f o</p><p>rticle history:eceived 6 May 2010eceived in revised form0 December 2010ccepted 7 January 2011</p><p>eywords:MRIemanticisualuditory</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural correlatesof semantic judgments to Chinese words in a group of 1015 year old Chinese children.Two semantic tasks were used: visualvisual versus visualauditory presentation. The firstword was visually presented (i.e. character) and the second word was either visually orauditorily presented, and the participant had to determine if these two words were relatedin meaning. Different from English, Chinese has many homophones in which each spo-ken word corresponds to many characters. The visualauditory task, therefore, requiredgreater engagement of cognitive control for the participants to select a semantically appro-priate answer for the second homophonic word. Weaker association pairs produced greateractivation in the mid-ventral region of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) for both tasks. How-</p><p>ssociation strengthge</p><p>ever, this effect was stronger for the visualauditory task than for the visualvisual task andthis difference was stronger for older compared to younger children. The findings suggestgreater involvement of semantic selection mechanisms in the cross-modal task requiringthe access of the appropriate meaning of homophonic spoken words, especially for olderchildren.</p><p>. Introduction</p><p>Reading fluency requires the capability to integraterthographic, phonological and semantic representationsCao et al., 2009; Cone et al., 2008). The current studysed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to</p><p>xamine developmental changes in Chinese children (aged015) during a cross-modal semantic association task inhich words were presented in the visual and auditoryodality.</p><p> Corresponding author at: Department of Psychology, National Taiwanniversity, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan.el.: +886 2 33663082; fax: +886 2 23631463.</p><p>E-mail address: (T.-L. Chou).</p><p>878-9293/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.oi:10.1016/j.dcn.2011.01.005</p><p> 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p><p>Effective word recognition involves the rapid corre-spondence between orthography, phonology, and seman-tics (Coltheart et al., 2001; Plaut et al., 1996). Previousstudies have used cross-modal paradigms to examine theconversion between orthography and phonology in wordrecognition in English (Noppeney et al., 2007; Marslen-Wilson and Zwitserlood, 1989; Whatmough et al., 1999)and French (Grainger et al., 2001; Kiyonaga et al., 2007).However, these languages have writing systems with fewerhomophones. In contrast, there exist many homophonesin Chinese and thus mapping is particularly unsystem-atic from spoken to written word forms. Spoken Chinese(Mandarin) uses four tones to differentiate different words</p><p>with different meanings. Chinese has about 5000 commonwords, but only about 400 different syllables independentof tone, or around 1300 if a change in tone is consideredto create a different syllable (Reich et al., 2003). There-</p><p></p></li><li><p>ognitive</p>S.-H. Lee et al. / Developmental C<p>fore, Chinese contains many monosyllabic homophoneswith different meanings. About 55 percent of monosylla-bles correspond to more than five homophones (Instituteof Linguistics, 1985). When a Chinese word is pronouncedwithout context, it is almost impossible for the listenerto know which visual word or meaning is referred to.For example, the monosyllable yi4 has about 90 homo-phones with different word forms and different meanings(number indicates the tone), and there are about 171homophones for this monosyllable when four tones areincluded.</p><p>The present study took advantage of this lack of sys-tematicity in Chinese by using a cross-modal presentationin which the first word was presented visually and thesecond word was presented auditorily (visualauditory).Participants were asked to judge if these two sequen-tially presented words were related in meaning or notin a semantic judgment task. In hearing the sound inthe visualauditory task, the participants may activate allthe possible orthographic candidates and meanings (Hunget al., 2010; Booth et al., 2007). Thus, the goal of this studywas to test whether the existence of multiple homophonesmay increase phonological mediation to access meaningor whether the multiple homophones may induce greaterengagement of selecting an appropriate character and/ormeaning among spoken homophones when words are pre-sented auditorily in Chinese.</p><p>During the semantic judgment task, semantic associa-tion has been used to evaluate meaning processing suchas selection, retrieval and integration in English and Chi-nese (Fletcher et al., 2000; Chou et al., 2006a,b, 2009a;Raposo et al., 2006). Aforementioned studies have iden-tified two critical regions including left inferior parietallobule for processing closely related pairs (i.e. strongerassociation) and left inferior frontal gyrus for process-ing distantly related pairs (i.e. weaker association) to beengaged in semantic processing. Processing closely relatedword pairs has elicited greater activation in left inferiorparietal lobule (BA 39, 40), suggesting the integration ofmultiple shared features between word pairs (Grossmanet al., 2003; Koenig et al., 2005). In addition, greater acti-vation was observed in left inferior parietal lobule whenparticipants were cued to be aware of the semantic featuresof the incoming word target (Cristescua et al., 2006) and/ormerging the incoming information into current syntacticstructures (Lau et al., 2008).</p><p>Processing distantly related pairs has elicited greateractivation in left ventrolateral regions of inferior frontalgyrus (BA 45, 47). The greater activation in left inferiorfrontal gyrus is thought to reflect the difficulty of retrievingor selecting the shared features between distantly relatedword pairs (Fletcher et al., 2000). Moreover, previoussemantic studies examining semantic retrieval or selec-tion have found greater activation in the left inferior frontalgyrus, such as abstract versus concrete word (Pexman et al.,2007), matching specific features versus global similarity(Snyder et al., 2007; Thompson-Schill et al., 1997, 1999),</p><p>indirectly versus directly related word pairs (Kuperberget al., 2008), inconsistent versus consistent word process-ing (Bedny et al., 2008). These aforementioned studiessupport the idea that greater difficulty of semantic retrieval</p><p> Neuroscience 1 (2011) 338 350 339</p><p>or selection required greater engagement of the left inferiorfrontal gyrus.</p><p>Previous studies suggest that different regions of leftinferior frontal gyrus may support processing of differentlinguistic functions (Liu et al., 2009; Poldrack et al., 1999).The dorsal regions of left inferior fontal gyrus (BA 9, 44)are engaged in phonological mediation (Booth et al., 2004;Liu et al., 2009; Poldrack et al., 1999). Studies have foundgreater activations in the dorsal regions of left inferiorfrontal gyrus for phonetic monitoring, phoneme genera-tion, or phonological segmentation (Binder et al., 2004; Fiezet al., 1999; Gandour et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2009). In the cur-rent study, distantly related pairs had significantly feweroverlapping features than closely related pairs, presumablymaking mapping to semantics less efficient and possiblyincreasing phonological mediation. Greater phonologicalmediation may be enhanced in the visualauditory taskdue to multiple homophones being activated, as comparedto when both words are presented visually (visualvisual).Previous behavioral studies in Chinese have shown thatwhen participants were given homophones during audi-tory word processing in Chinese, increasing phonologicalinformation appeared to speed up the process of access tomeaning (Li and Yip, 1998).</p><p>In contrast to dorsal regions, the ventral regions ofinferior IFG (BA 45, 47) seem to be involved in semantic pro-cessing (Badre and Wagner, 2007; Liu et al., 2009; Poldracket al., 1999). Badre and Wagner (2007) further proposeddifferent cognitive functions for ventral regions of the infe-rior frontal gyrus. The anterior ventral region of left inferiorfrontal gyrus (BA 47) may support controlled access tostored semantic representations, whereas the mid-ventralregion of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) may support aselection process among active representations. In particu-lar, the mid-ventral region of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA45) has been proposed to be involved in cognitive control,including inhibiting irrelevant responses/information andselecting relevant responses/information (Botvinick et al.,2001, 2004; Bunge et al., 2002). The mechanism under-lying the activation of multiple competitors has been putforth in the biased competition model (Kan and Thompson-Schill, 2004). This model assumes that when a word ispresented, multiple associated representations are acti-vated automatically. Upon the presentation of a secondword, associated meanings of that word are also activated,but the weight of each active meaning is biased by thepreceding word. Meanings of the second word relevant tothe context have greater weight, whereas the irrelevantmeanings have lower weights. This model also assumesthat relevant meanings with greater weight inhibit irrele-vant meanings. In the current study, the selection demandmay be low (i.e., greater weight) for target words in closelyrelated pairs, because they have many overlapping fea-tures and few irrelevant features. In contrast, the selectiondemand may be high (i.e., lower weight) for target wordsin distantly related pairs, because few overlapping fea-tures and many irrelevant features. In other words, the</p><p>first word of the related pairs may act as a semantic con-straint for the second word. The semantic constraint may beweaker in the distantly related pairs, in which the demandto select among multiple competitors may be greater than</p></li><li><p>3 ognitive</p><p>ipot</p><p>cfPitvgmpdtmu1</p><p>spt2ics2uLieugsaeaLdbmiC</p><p>ds(lvtHtwrgntscg</p><p>40 S.-H. Lee et al. / Developmental C</p><p>n the closely related pairs. Processing distantly relatedairs might, therefore, result in greater cognitive controlf inhibiting irrelevant features and selecting relevant fea-ures.</p><p>In the current study, distantly related pairs may beharacterized by greater activation of distinctive/irrelevanteatures and weaker activation of shared/relevant features.rocessing distantly related pairs might, therefore, resultn greater cognitive control of inhibiting irrelevant fea-ures and selecting relevant features. Moreover, in theisualauditory task, participants needed to select the tar-et among competing homophones, and therefore this taskay place greater demands on cognitive control as com-</p><p>ared to the visualvisual task. The evidence supportingemanding cognitive control is that in a cross-modal tasko disambiguate various homophonic meanings in Chinese,</p><p>ultiple homophones may compete and thus require these of context to select the correct answer (Li and Yip,998).</p><p>In addition, behavioral studies of cognitive control havehown changes from childhood through adolescence inerformance in a variety of tasks including a go/no-goask (Eigsti et al., 2006), Stroop task (Leon-Carrion et al.,004), and antisaccade task (Luna et al., 2004). Neuro-</p><p>maging studies have identified prolonged developmentalhanges in structure of the prefrontal cortex including den-ity reduction in gray matter (Giedd, 1999; Gogtay et al.,004; Shaw et al., 2006; Sowell et al., 2001, 2003) and vol-me increases in white matter (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005;iston et al., 2005; Nagy et al., 2004; Paus et al., 1999) andn functional activation in prefrontal regions during a vari-ty of cognitive control tasks including response inhibitionsing a Stroop task (Adleman et al., 2002) and using go/no-o tasks (Bunge et al., 2002; Tamm et al., 2002). Severaltudies have also demonstrated that adolescents betweenges 13 and 17 are more capable of dealing with interfer-nce during cognitive control tasks than children betweenges 8 and 12 (Adleman et al., 2002; Lamm et al., 2006;una et al., 2004; Williams et al., 1999). This improvementuring adolescence suggests that teenagers are more capa-le of maintaining multiple dimensions of concepts in theind and using a flexible mechanism to filter out irrelevant</p><p>nformation during cognitive control tasks (Blakemore andhoudhury, 2006).</p><p>In the current study, the first goal was to examineifferences between a uni-modal (visualvisual pre-entation) and a cross-modal semantic judgment taskvisualauditory presentation). If there is greater phono-ogical mediation for the visualauditory task than theisualvisual task, there should be greater activation inhe dorsal region of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 9).owever, if there are greater demands on cognitive con-</p><p>rol for the visualauditory task than the visualvisual task,e expected to find greater activation in the mid-ventral</p><p>egion of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45). The secondoal was to determine whether age in 1015-year-old Chi-ese children was differentially related to activation in</p><p>he visualauditory versus the visualvisual tasks. Becausetudies have shown substantial improvement in cognitiveontrol from childhood to adolescence, we expected to seereater age related changes in the inferior frontal gyrus for</p><p> Neuroscience 1 (2011) 338 350</p><p>the visualauditory task due to greater demands on cogni-tive control for this task.</p><p>2. Methods</p><p>2.1. Participants</p><p>In the visualvisual meaning judgment task, a group oftwenty-three native monolingual Chinese children (meanage = 12.8, standard deviation = 1.5, 11 girls) participated.In the visualauditory meaning judgment task, anothergroup of twenty-three native monolingual Chinese chil-dren (mean age = 12.8, standard deviation = 1.5, 11 girls)participated. All forty-six children were recruite...</p></li></ul>


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