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  • Developing Phonological Awareness and Improving Speech Production

    and Literacy Learning to Speak Clearly,Read, Write and Spell

    Presented by: Helen Sherman-Wade, MA CCC-SLP Executive Director-Speech, Language & Educational Associates

    CSUS-NSSLHA Conference January 30, 2010

  • Phonological Awareness Learning to Speak Clearly,

    Read, Spell, and Write

    Phonological awareness is the ability to notice, think about or manipulate the sounds in language. It refers generally to the awareness of words, syllables or phonemes. Phonological awareness includes the ability to consciously manipulate the sounds of speech tasks such as blending, segmenting and rhyming. It is the awareness of individual sounds in words (e.e., c-a-t). If a student can’t accurately recognize and manipulate speech sounds, he/she will have difficulty relating to those sound to printed letters and words, a skill essential to decoding words. If children cannot decode words quickly, they will have difficulty comprehending what they are reading.

  • Phonological Awareness Skill Development – Age 3

    • Recite known rhymes, for example, Jack and Jill.

    • Produce rhyme by pattern, for example, give the word “cat” as a rhyming word for “hat.”

    • Recognize alliteration (words beginning with the same first sound), for example, “Mommy, Michele, they’re the same.”

  • Phonological Awareness Skill Development – Age 4

    • Segment syllables, for example, know there are two parts to the word “cowboy.”

    • Count the number of syllables in words (50% of 4-year-olds can do this).

  • Phonological Awareness Skill Development- Age 5

    • Count syllables in words (90% of 5- year-olds can do this).

    • Count phonemes within words (fewer than 50% of 5-year-olds can do this).

  • Phonological Awareness Skill Development – Age 6

    • Match initial consonants in words, for example, able to recognize that “shoe” and “sheep” begin with the same first sound.

    • Blend two to three phonemes, for example, recognize that the sounds /d/ /o/ /g/ for the word “dog.”

    • Count phonemes within words (70% of 6-year olds can do this).

    • Identify rhyming words, for example, “pit” rhymes with “mit.”

    • Divide words by onset (first consonant or blend) and rime (rest of the word), for example, can divide the word “stop” into /st/ /op/.

  • Phonological Awareness Cont’ Learning to Speak Clearly,

    Read, Spell, and Write

    • Ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words

    • Some of the tasks commonly used: – Phoneme isolation/identification: Tell me the

    first sound in the word car. – Phoneme identity: Tell me the sound that is

    the same in dog, door, dime. – Phoneme categorization: Which word does

    not belong – bug, boy sit.

  • Learning to Speak Clearly, Read, Spell, and Write

    • Ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words cont’

    • Some of the tasks commonly used: – Phoneme blending: What is this word? /s/

    /p/ /i/ /n/ – Phoneme segmentation: How many sounds in

    the word break? – Tapping or counting – Pronouncing sound by sound

    – Phoneme deletion: Say slip without the l.

  • CTOPP-Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing

    • Ages 5 -24 • Provides Composite Scores for:

    – Phonological Awareness – Phonological Memory – Rapid Naming

  • The Phonological Awareness Test-2 (TPAT-2)

    • Ages 5 thru 9-11 • Rhyming Subtest • Segmentation Subtest • Isolation Subtest • Deletion Subtest • Substitution Subtest – similar to LAC Test • Blending Subtest • Grapheme & Decoding Subtest – Invented Spelling

  • Phononological Awareness Learning to Speak Clearly,

    Read, Spell, and Write P.A. Development Continuum:

    •Rhyming songs •Sentence segmentation •Syllable segmentation & blending •Onset-rime, blending and segmentation •Blending and segmenting individual phonemes

  • Importance of Reading Fluency

    Phonological vs. Phonemic Awareness • Phonological Awareness: Awareness of

    words, syllables, or phonemes • Phonemic Awareness: Awareness of

    individual sounds • A word about phonics:

    – Systematic phonics instruction – Teaches reading by stressing acquisition of

    letter-sound correspondences – Teaches how letter-sound relationships are

    important for reading and spelling.

  • The Phonological Awareness Profile – Ages 5-8

    • Rhyming • Segmentation • Isolation • Deletion • Substitution • Blending

  • Funnel Toward Phonics by Judy Montgomery, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    • Level I: – Phonics (explicitly teaching the code for

    sound symbol correspondence, with print • Letters represent the sounds (phonemes) • Predictable patters (CVC, CVCC • Most consistent consonants • Short, then long vowels

  • Goldman Lynch Sound Symbol Program

    • High Hat

  • Judy Montgomery…cont • Phonemic Awareness (systematically

    isolating sounds of specific words) – Hearing, counting, repeating all phonemes – Segmenting, substituting, reversing specific

    sounds in words. – Recognizing that letters are different from

    sounds. – Sensing a pattern of how sounds can be

    represented by letters.

  • Judy Montgomery…continued • Phonological Awareness (generally manipulating

    the sounds of spoken language without print.)

    – Reproducing visual, auditory and motor patterns – Rhymes and chants. – Sentence imitation. – Knowing and counting words. – Knowing and counting syllables.

  • Judy Montgomery…con’t

    • Phonological Processing • Speaking

  • Fluent vs. Non-Fluent Readers Fluent Readers Read Text With:

    Speed • Accuracy • Proper expression • Good Comprehension • Freedom from word identification

    problems • Able to group words appropriately

    into grammatical units for interpretation (rapid use of punctuation and determination of where to place emphasis or pause to make sense of information.

    Non Fluent Readers Read Text with:

    • Sound out words, but very slowly

    • Don’t recognize familiar sight words

    • Sound stiff without expression

    • Insert words, omit words, misread small words.

  • Importance of Fluency….

    Fluency involves: • Not only automatic word recognition, but the

    ability to attend to prosodic features (rhythm, intonation and phrasing.

    • Anticipation of what comes next in the text – anticipation facilitates reaction time and aids comprehension.

    There is a close relationship between fluency and reading comprehension. Hallmark of fluent reading is the ability to decode and comprehend at the same time.

  • Phonological vs. Phonemic Awareness Cont’

    Fluency and automaticity: Terms used synonymously

    Automaticity: processing of complex information that ordinarily requires long period of training before it can be done with little attention.

    It is carried out without immediate attention, • Without conscious awareness, • Without interfering with other processes that are

    occurring at the same time. • Once activated, processes continue to completion because

    they are difficult to suppress.

  • Importance of Reading Fluency

    If automaticity is used to describe quick, automatic recognition of word level stimuli, then fluency is used to describe reading in connected text- accurate and quick. The non-fluent reader’s mental effort is on decoding and very little on comprehension. The fluent reader’s effort is minimally on decoding and mostly on comprehension.

    We know that children with poor Rapid Auditory Processing have listening, reading and speaking problems. They score poorly on tests such as the RAN

  • RAN/RAS Rapid Automatized Naming & Rapid

    Alternating Stimulus Tests • Objects • Colors • Numbers • Letters • 2-Set Letters and Numbers • 3-Set Letters, Numbers, and Colors

  • Importance of Reading Fluency Double Deficit Hypothesis (Wolf & Bowers,

    1999 )

    “A core deficit in phonological processes impedes the acquisition of word recognition skills, which, in turn, impedes the acquisition of fluent reading”…ie….phonological process deficit thought to cause non-fluent reading. THEN… “Many severely impaired readers have naming-speed deficits…in the processes underlying rapid recognition and retrieval of visually presented linguistic stimuli.”

  • Importance of Reading Fluency

    Double Deficit Hypothesis Cont’

    Types of non-fluent readers:

    1. Processing rate/efficiency of system – Reading accurate, but painfully slow – Often not identified by schools – Can’t keep up with assignments – Brain locus: cerebellum – control of precise timing

    2. Automaticity of processing – Oral reading inaccurate and slow – Errors: false starts, hesitations filled with pauses and repetitions – Adequate phonological awareness skills but not at automatic level. – Self-monit

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