deuterostomes notochord dorsal, hollow nerve cord pharyngeal gill slits muscular postanal tail...
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Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Postanal tail Phylum: Chordata Slide 2 Notochord: long flexible rod between gut and nerve cord Present in all embryos Fluid-filled cells in fibrous tissue Length of animal, skeleton Phylum: Chordata Slide 3 Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Ectoderm, rolls into tube Becomes central nervous system Inverts have ventral, solid cords Phylum: Chordata Slide 4 Pharyngeal gill slits Filter feeders (?) Modified for gas exchange Muscular Post-anal tail Skeletal and muscular; Propulsion Digestive system extends length of non-chordates Phylum: Chordata Slide 5 Taxonomy Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Phylum Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata sea squirts Subphylum: Cephalochordata - lancelets Subphylum: Vertebrata Slide 6 Phylum: Chordata Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata Tunicates; Sea squirts Marine, sessile Larva are free swimming; (have all characteristics) Larva Adult Slide 7 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Cephalochordata Lancelets Bladelike Marine Burrow into sand Filter feeders Slide 8 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Subphylum - Vertebrata Hagfishes Hagfishes - jawless marine fish Cartilaginous skull and axial rod of cartilage derived from the notochord Lack vertebrae Slide 9 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Phylum: Chordata: Phylum: Chordata: Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Post anal tail Slide 10 Taxonomy Domain Eukarya Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Phylum Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class Agnatha Jawless fish Class Agnatha Jawless fish Class Chondrichthyes cartilage fish Class Chondrichthyes cartilage fish Class Osteithyes bony fish Class Osteithyes bony fish Class Amphibia amphibians Class Amphibia amphibians Class Reptilia reptiles Class Reptilia reptiles Class Aves birds Class Aves birds Class Mammalia Class Mammalia Slide 11 Vertebrates 5 basic groups: 5 basic groups: Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Slide 12 Fish Characteristics Aquatic; gills for respiration Sexes separate; internal and external fertilization Oviparous lay eggs (Nemo) Ovoviviparous eggs remain in body until hatched (sea horses, some sharks) heart Two chambered heart Ectotherms (cold-blooded) body temperature matches environment Most covered in scales Slide 13 Fish 3 types: 3 types: Agnatha jawless Cartilaginous Bony Slide 14 Class: Agnatha Lamprey eels Lamprey eels Ectoparasites Scaleless Scaleless Oviparous Oviparous Anadromous or freshwater Anadromous or freshwater Edible no bones Edible no bones Slide 15 Class: Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous fish - harks, rays, skates Cartilaginous fish - harks, rays, skates Jaws, teeth of bone; skeleton of cartilage Jaws, teeth of bone; skeleton of cartilage Flexible, fast, agile Sexes separate; fertilization is internal Sexes separate; fertilization is internal Almost all marine (bull shark, ray) Almost all marine (bull shark, ray) Covered in placoid scales (dental ridge) Covered in placoid scales (dental ridge) More efficient, quieter swimmers Slide 16 Class: Chondrichthyes Predators/scavengers Predators/scavengers Excellent senses: Excellent senses: Smell Lateral line system changes in water pressure caused by vibrations in water Electrosensors on nose Slide 17 Rays, skates Rays, skates Dorso-ventrally flattened Dorso-ventrally flattened Bottom dwellers Bottom dwellers Crush molluscs Crush molluscs Whiplike tail, barb Whiplike tail, barb Class: Chondrichthyes Slide 18 Skate or Ray? Skates mermaids purse, sharp teeth; fat, fleshy tail with no barb Skates mermaids purse, sharp teeth; fat, fleshy tail with no barb Rays viviparous; flat, crushing teeth, long, whip-like tail with barbs Rays viviparous; flat, crushing teeth, long, whip-like tail with barbs Body shape Body shape Slide 19 Sharks 440 species 440 species Carnivores, some filter feeders Carnivores, some filter feeders Liver for buoyancy Liver for buoyancy Not efficient so must keep moving Ram ventilation force fresh water over their gills Ram ventilation force fresh water over their gills Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Pelagic, coastal, bottom dwellers Pelagic, coastal, bottom dwellers Slide 20 Class: Osteichthyes Skeleton is bone; calcium phosphate Marine, freshwater Operculum bony plate covering gills Protection Pumps water over gills; without moving Swim bladder gas-filled sac (buoyant) 2 pairs of paired appendages Slide 21 Slide 22 Osteichthyes Scales (exceptions) Ectotherms (tuna, swordfish) Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Teeth Dioecious External and internal fertilization Oviparous and ovoviviparous Mating, territoriality behaviors Slide 23 Cold blood from the gills is passed near warmer blood from internal muscles; slow exchange of heat to colder blood. Fish are much more active in colder waters. 10-20 body lengths/sec Slide 24 Osteichthyes 2 types: Actinopterygii - ray-finned rays of thin bone in fins Sarcopterygii - lung fish, Coelocanths Slide 25 Class: Amphibia dual life Metamorphosis egg, tadpole, adult Aquatic then terrestrial Algae then predators Eggs in water Adults on land (mostly) Gills to lungs/skin Lateral line to eardrum Slide 26 Amphibians Three chambered heart Ectotherms Smooth skin diffusion of oxygen Many retain gills as adults Near or in water; moist soil, burrows High humidity; tropical rain forests 3 types: frogs/toads, salamanders, Caecilians Slide 27 Dioecious External fertilization, large numbers of eggs Mating behaviors; Vocalizations Amphibians Slide 28 Amphibia Caecilians, blind lizard legless, almost blind Caecilians, blind lizard legless, almost blind Burrow in soft mud, tropical Burrow in soft mud, tropical Slide 29 Class Reptilia Class Reptilia Poikilothermic, ectotherms Poikilothermic, ectotherms Lower caloric intake, Less active, ambush predators 3-chambered heart 3-chambered heart Scales; keratin (protein) Scales; keratin (protein) Lungs Lungs Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Subphylum: Vertebrata Slide 30 Class: Reptilia Dioecious; internal fertilization, cloaca Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Amniotic Egg; Amniotic fluid and shell Prevents desiccation; lay eggs on land Slide 31 Class: Reptilia 4 Orders: 4 Orders: Testudines turtles Squamata lizards and snakes Sphenodontia tuatara Crocodalia - ? Slide 32 Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Order: Testudines Turtles, tortoises, terrapins Turtles, tortoises, terrapins Omnivores, no teeth Omnivores, no teeth Migration Migration Marine, fresh, terrestrial Marine, fresh, terrestrial Internal fertilization Internal fertilization Oviparous on land Oviparous on land Slide 33 Order Squamata Lizards, snakes Carnivores, herbivores External ear Heat sensing organs Class: Reptilia Slide 34 Order: Crocodalia Order: Crocodalia Ectotherms Ectotherms 4-chambered heart 4-chambered heart Parental care Parental care Slide 35 Hearts: Vertebrates Have Excellent Closed Circulatory Systems 2chambered3-chambered4-chambered Slide 36 Vertebrate Hearts 2 chambered 2 chambered Fish (Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) Oxygenated blood goes directly to tissues without returning to heart Slide 37 Vertebrate Hearts 3 chambered 3 chambered: Amphibians, reptiles Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood can mix Slide 38 Vertebrate Hearts 4 chambered 4 chambered: Birds, mammals Oxygenated blood is separated from deoxygenated blood (more efficient gas exchange) Slide 39 Birds Endotherms Endotherms 4-chambered heart 4-chambered heart Feathers Feathers Flight Increased surface area Foil Camouflage Mate attraction Insulation Slide 40 Flight Feathers Increase surface area without increasing weight Create a foil shape (lift) Strong wing muscles Highly oxygenated Large keel for attachment of muscle Hollow bones - decrease weight Parabronchi lung spread throughout body Reduced body parts Slide 41 Sternum, Keel; large surface area for attachment of flight muscles Surface area Hollow bones Slide 42 Bird Characteristics Scaly legs reptiles? Scaly legs reptiles? Keratin beak no teeth (weight) Keratin beak no teeth (weight) Dioecious; dimorphic Dioecious; dimorphic Oviparous amniotic egg Oviparous amniotic egg Most have high parental care Most have high parental care Slide 43 Mammals Endotherms 4-chambered heart Fur/hair most (bristles) Mammary glands milk Dioecious; dimorphic 3 3 basic types: monotremes, marsupials, placentals Slide 44 Class: Mammalia - Monotremes Duck-billed platypus, spiny echidna Duck-billed platypus, spiny echidna Oviparous Oviparous No nipples patches on skin, milk oozes out No nipples patches on skin, milk oozes out Cloaca Cloaca Slide 45 Mammals: Marsupials Pouched - marsupium Viviparous Young born very altricial (helpless) Climb into pouch attach to nipple and suckle to fuller development Most in Australia; opposum Slide 46 Class: Mammalia - Placentals Viviparous Viviparous Young develop attached to mothers body via a placenta Young develop attached to mothers body via a placenta Nutrient/waste exchange O 2, sugar Surrounded by amnion Most common Most common