Designing a Unit for Teaching and Assessing for Understanding in Literacy and Numeracy UnderstandingUnderstanding Scaffolding Literacy Numeracy UnderstandingUnderstanding.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Designing a Unit for Teaching and Assessing for Understanding in Literacy and Numeracy UnderstandingUnderstanding Scaffolding Literacy Numeracy UnderstandingUnderstanding </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Current Understanding from theory to practice TheoryTheory PracticePractice Draw a diagram to show the influence of educational theory on your own teaching practice </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Understandings (Throughlines) Unit long understandings Essential Questions Unit Questions THEORY &amp; CONCEPTS Teachers will gain an appreciation of the contribution of early 20th c developmental psychology to modern educational theory and practice Teachers will gain an appreciation of the contribution of Lev Vygotskys developmental psychology to modern educational theory and practice What fundamental ideas in developmental psychology influence contemporary pedagogy? How influential is Lev Vygotskys conception of the zone of proximal development on curriculum planning and teaching practice? How might the ZPD contribute to teaching literacy and numeracy? Teachers will be able to use a wide vocabulary of pedagogical concepts derived from early 20th c developmental psychology and modern educational theory Teachers will be able to explain the following terms: zone of proximal development and scaffolding, essential and unit questions, understanding, understanding goals (throughlines), understanding performances What are the key concepts derived from early 20th c developmental psychology and modern educational theory for teaching for understanding and what is their meaning and significance to contemporary education? What meaning and significance have the following terms for teaching for understanding: zone of proximal development and scaffolding, essential and unit questions, understanding, understanding goals (throughlines), understanding performances? MODELS &amp; APPLICATION Teachers will be able to describe and explain various models for designing (scaffolding) learning sequences for teaching for understanding Teachers will be able to describe and explain four models - by Murdoch and others - for the design (scaffolding) of enquiry units What complementary theoretical models are available for designing (scaffolding) learning sequences for teaching for understanding especially for literacy and numeracy and what are their key features? What are the similarities and differences between four models - by Murdoch and others - for the design (scaffolding) of enquiry units and how useful are they for teaching for literacy and numeracy? Teachers will be able to scaffold and assess a unit of work for enquiry in a learning sequence Teachers will be able to scaffold and assess a unit of work based on given models - by Murdoch and others - which can lead to students developing literacy and / or numeracy skills which are discrete, or embedded in a problem solving activity or enquiry unit How can a unit of work in a learning sequence be scaffolded and assessed to improve understanding? How can a unit of work be designed for the ZPD based on given models - by Murdoch and others - which can lead to students developing understanding especially in literacy or numeracy? How can students be assessed for understanding? Understanding Goals </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Post it Write a unit question or understanding goal - which is important to you - for this PD </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Background Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky, born in the U.S.S.R. in 1896, is responsible for the social development theory of learning. He proposed that social interaction profoundly influences cognitive development. Central to Vygotsky's theory is his belief that biological and cultural development do not occur in isolation (Driscoll, 1994) http://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/ </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Lev Vygotsky is typically described as having offered an alternative to Piaget's stages of cognitive development. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Development is a major influence in the field of psychology and education (Woolfolk, A., 2004). This theory stated that students learn through social interactions and their culture apparently in contrast to Piaget's theory that stated children act on their environment to learn. Vygotsky and Piaget </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> What is the minds boundary? Suppose I am a blind man, and I use a stick. I go tap, tap, tap. Where do I start? Is my mental system bounded at the hand of the stick? Is it bounded by my skin? Does it start halfway up the stick? Does it start at the tip of the stick (p. 459) Gregory Bateson (1972) Thought Experiment </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> How do humans, in their short life trajectory, advance so far beyond their initial biological endowment and in such diverse directions? Essential question: How important is Vygotskys theory of cognitive development to the validation of current educational practice? Understanding goal: Teachers will gain a critical appreciation of the significance of Vygotsky to modern educational theory and practice Tell a story about a child whose initial biological endowment suggested that she would not thrive yet she did go forward. What happened? </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> What does this proposition of Vygotskys suggest about teaching and learning? "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (p57). Essential question: How important is Vygotskys theory of cognitive development to the validation of current educational practice? Understanding goal: Teachers will gain a critical appreciation of the significance of Vygotsky to modern educational theory and practice </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The teacher's role is not that of simplifying the content, but of providing unfamiliar content and the setting for learners to step from their current level to a higher level of understanding. Mary Ellen Goldfarb Essential question: How important is Vygotskys theory of cognitive development to the validation of current educational practice? Understanding goal: Teachers will gain a critical appreciation of the significance of Vygotsky to modern educational theory and practice For one and the same person, a certain type of intellect may be well developed and, simultaneously, another type may be very weak. Vygotsky 1929 In what ways has this view of Vygotskys influenced contemporary pedagogy? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86) Understanding goal : Teachers will be able to explain the following terms: zone of proximal development and scaffolding, essential and understanding, understanding goals (throughlines), understanding performances </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> ZPD Actual developmental level What a child can do alone Potential development what children can do with the assistance of others might be in some sense even more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone .Vygotsky (1978) Assistance of others Scaffolding </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Excerpted from R.G. Tharp and R. Gallimore (1988). Rousing minds to life (p.35). Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press Four-Stage Model of ZPD </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Teacher support Student independence Modelling Independent student work Guiding Sharing I do You watch I do You help You do I help You do I watch Gradient of Teaching </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> What is scaffolding?How does scaffolding work? Why scaffolding? "process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal that would be beyond his unassisted efforts" (Wood, Bruner, &amp; Ross, 1976). The instructional technique in which the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task and then gradually shifts responsibility to the students is called scaffolding. info@ncrel.org The scaffolding literature suggests that a major feature [of] ZPD is its dialogical structure in the Vygotskian sense: one in which tutor and learner are engaged in an exchange that aims at creating a consensus regarding, among other things, the goalstructure of the problem at hand and the actions most apposite to the problem's solution. Ideally, the teacher's utterances are aimed at ensuring the learner's maximal involvement in completing the task at hand, even in the absence of the latter's full understanding of the task situation, in this way, nudging the child "from one level of competence to the next and eventually to independent application of the instructed skill" (Palincsar, 1986, p. 74). </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> What is scaffolding?How does scaffolding work? Why scaffolding? "process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal that would be beyond his unassisted efforts" (Wood, Bruner, &amp; Ross, 1976). [T]he successful scaffolding of instruction requires that the teacher perform a number of functions, among which are the selection, organization, and presentation of suitable tasks. These tasks must also allow for: the teaching of emerging skills; ongoing evaluation of the task's suitability to its purpose; the generation and maintenance of the learner's interest in the task; the use of modeling, questioning, and explanation to clarify the goals of the task; and the presentation of approximations and appropriate approaches to the task (Palincsar, 1986; Wood, Bruner, and Ross, 1976). The scaffolding literature suggests that a major feature [of] ZPD is its dialogical structure in the Vygotskian sense: one in which tutor and learner are engaged in an exchange that aims at creating a consensus regarding, among other things, the goalstructure of the problem at hand and the actions most apposite to the problem's solution. Ideally, the teacher's utterances are aimed at ensuring the learner's maximal involvement in completing the task at hand, even in the absence of the latter's full understanding of the task situation, in this way, nudging the child "from one level of competence to the next and eventually to independent application of the instructed skill" (Palincsar, 1986, p. 74). </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Scaffolding Tensions in the ZPD Authority &amp; ControlSelf-efficacy &amp; Autonomy Partial understandingUnderstanding External(isation)Internal(isation) From guided problem solving to independent problem solving </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> [A] picture in our minds I understand something if </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> It may help to have a picture in our minds of what we mean by understanding. I feel that I understand something if and when I can do some, at least, of the following: (1) state it in my own words; (2) give examples of it; (3) recognize it in various guises and circumstances; (4) see connections between it and other facts or ideas; (5) make use of it in various ways; (6) foresee some of its consequences; (7) state its opposite or converse. The list is only a beginning; but it may help us in the future to find out what our students really know as opposed to what they can give the appearance of knowing, their real learning as opposed to their apparent learning. John Holt How Children Fail (1964) Quoted by Yoram Harpaz (2003) [A] picture in our minds I understand something if </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Two approaches to curriculum design [scaffolding] Thinking Like an AssessorThinking Like an Activity Designer What would be sufficient and revealing evidence of understanding? What would be interesting and engaging activities on this topic? What performance tasks must anchor the unit and focus the instructional work? What resources and materials are available on this topic? How will I be able to distinguish between those who really understand and those who dont (though they may seem to)? What will students be doing in and out of class? What assignments will be given? Against what criteria will I distinguish work? How will I give students a grade (and justify it to their parents)? What misunderstandings are likely? How will I check for those? Did the activities work? Why or why not? From Wiggins and McTighe Understanding by Design </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> What would be sufficient and revealing evidence of understanding? Thinking Like an Assessor Understand -ing </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> What would be sufficient and revealing evidence of understanding? Thinking Like an Assessor Understand -ing Explain support, justify theorize &amp; defend Apply to novel situation authentic context </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Design (Scaffolding) Models </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Unit Title /Generative Topic / Fertile Question / What is worthy and requiring understanding? Understandings (Throughline) Unit Understandings Essential Question Unit Questions Concepts Scaffolding for Understanding 1 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> StrandDomainDimensionStandards Physical, Personal and Social learning Disciplined based learning Inter- disciplinary learning Scaffolding for Understanding with VELS 2 </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Title Under- standing What can the student do alone? What strategies are to be applied? What assistance is the student to be given? How will the student be assisted? What will the student be assisted to do? Literacy/ Verbal Assess- -ment [ for/as/of ] Literacy [ SCAFFOLDING] Planning for the ZPD 3. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Title Under- standing What can the student do alone? What strategies are to be applied? What assistance is the student to be given? How will the student be assisted? What will the student be assisted to do? Numeracy/ Mathematic al Assess- -ment [ for/as/of ] Numeracy [ SCAFFOLDING] Planning for the ZPD 3. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Title Under- standing What can the student do alone? What strategies are to be applied? What assistance is the student to be given? How will the student be assisted? What will the student be assisted to do? Literacy/ Verbal Numeracy/ Mathematic al Assess- -ment [ for/as/of ] Literacy/Numeracy [ SCAFFOLDING] Planning for the ZPD </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 4. Seven ways to be smart Blooms Taxonomy: Six Thinking Levels KnowingUnderstandingApplyingAnalysingCreatingEvaluating Verbal I enjoy reading, writing &amp; speaking Mathematical I enjoy working with numbers &amp; science Visual/Spatial I enjoy painting, drawing &amp; visualising Kinaesthetic I enjoy doing hands-on activities, sports &amp; dance Musical I enjoy making &amp;...</li></ul>

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