design thinking method sticker 2014
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Design Thinking Process(Re)define the problem
Design never ends
Needfinding & SynthesisUnderstand the
users & the design
Design space exploration
D I V E R G I N G C O N V E R G I N G
Funky prototype Functional
Design Thinking Phases
(Re)defining the problem asks you to simplify the visionary
challenge into a more differentiated problem statement. By (re)
defining the problem statement from the users perspective,
you are able to focus on unanswered and specific areas during
the needfinding phase. Framing what your team seeks to un-
derstand enables you to generate interview questions and to
come up with places for observations that seem promising to
understand the problem statement. Through constant and crit-
ical reflection, the problem statement needs to be redefined
as insights that provide new directions.
Design Space Map
Establish a common understanding of your challenge Formulate key questions and discuss important aspects Keep modifying and expanding your map throughout your project Treat your map as a visual record of how your project evolves Revisit this map from time to time, so your team stays aligned
THINK OFExperts | Skeptics | Fans | Extreme Users | Lead Users | Non-Users |
Mis-Users | Early Adopters | Innovators | Followers | Laggards |
Customers | Partner Organizations | Competitors | Suppliers
Who should we talk to?
Who can we learn from?
Where can we find them?
Ask, listen, observe and engage! Understanding the people
you are designing for is the foundation of human-centered
innovation. By observing and directly engaging with users, your
team learns about the way people think and the values they
hold. Gaining empathy enables you to discover the emotions
that guide peoples behavior and helps to capture physical
manifestations of experiences. This allows to sense intangible
meanings of user experiences and define latent needs. These
insights evoke user-centered inspiration for ideation and
Do desk research to get a first deep dive into your challenge (read articles, blogs, forums regarding your
topic and look at your companys website, )
Identify sources of inspiration Explore emerging trends and market opportunities Constantly share your research with the team (Diigo.com) Print out important numbers, quotes, and findings to
share your desk research within the team
Update your Design Space Map accordingly
How To Become An
How To Interview
Shortly introduce yourself. Tell the interviewee that you are interested in
their experiences regarding your topic.
What do you like about coffee (example topic)?
Have you had coffee today? How was your experience? How did you buy
it? How was the provided service?
Can you describe your most memorable coffee experience? What
If you would design the ultimate coffee experience, what would that be
Choose one who is leading the interview while the other is documenting
Encourage storytelling: use open-ended questions like Tell me about
Always ask why! (5 Whys)
Do not skip to a new topic before youve exhausted the current one
Capture memorable quotes to illustrate your findings
Look for inconsistencies and non-verbal clues (body-language, tone)
Expand your notes as soon as possible after each interview
Keep in mind: there might be a gap between what people say and what they
How To Engage
Self Test and Self Documentation make first-hand experiences and walk in the
shoes of your customers
engage in things and activities that people normally do
do typical activities of your stakeholders use empathy tools
Tips Dont lose the balance between objectivity and subjectivity. You are still the design team and not the target group
Empathize without judgment!
What are the
ities they go
Activities Environment Interactions Objects User
What is the
function of the
What is the
nature of inter-
What are the
have in their
Who is there?
What is their
A E I O U
Distinguish interpretation from observation
Dont let your expectations affect your observations
Look for anything that surprises you, that you may find irrational,
that makes you question your assumptions, that prompts shifts in
Take field notes, photos, videos, audio recordings
Try to picture the scene from different perspectives
Capture everything (notes) you experience, see, hear, feel, and taste
After the observation - print pictures and put quotes on post-its
Share the observations with your team
What To Observe II
CONFUSION. Watch the users facial expressions. A confused look signals an opportunity to make the experience more intuitive.
EXHAUSTION. Notice moments when people must work too hard (even if they dont realize it) as they seek to solve their problem.
PAIN POINTS. Look for moments that are actualy unpleasant or annoying. You will see it in the users facial expressions and body
APPROPRIATION + WORKAROUNDS. Pay attention to adaptations and the use of a product for a new/different purpose.
SKIPPED STEPS. If users skip a step, it might signal that they dont need, want, or understand the value of that step.
What to look for during observations
Synthesis is orientation and is therefore giving direction. After
engaging with users its time to transform your data into in-
sights. This is a difficult mental task to work out what connects
to what, which ideas are more outliers on their own, and which
concepts tie to the core of the design challenge. By looking at
your findings, try to link similarities, contradictions, exceptions
or patterns. Common themes provide inspiration for new,
improved prototypes which solve uncovered user needs. The
process of focusing your needfinding and testing data enables
you to create a shared understanding and team knowledge.
Share your findings with your team!
Share them while they are fresh. Which
stories/behaviors are most intruiging?
Listen actively! This helps to identify first
patterns and repeating themes.
Look for patterns, repetitions, exceptions.
Group notes together that form a theme.
Find titles for each cluster and phrase
insights. Insights extrapolate individual
stories into overall truths.
learning about your
user that you wouldnt
have assumed before
I saw I know Insight+ =
Venn Diagram 2x2 Matrix
THINK & FEELWhat really counts, major preoccupations,
worries and aspirations
SAY & DOAttitude in public, appearance, behavior towards others
HEARWhat friends, boss, or
SEEEnvironment, friends, what the
PAINFears, frustrations, obstacles
GAIN Wants/needs, measures of success
Empathy Map Whos your user...
I need to...
Common needs feel respected
Context needs confirm the validity of my work
Activity needs get feedback at the end of a project
Qualifier needs talk to my project supervisorHow?
demographics like age, education
needs and tasks
goals and aspirations
behavior, bugs an