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  • Design of a System for Lab-scale Production of Ethanol from Artificial Syngas

    By

    Mukesh Kumar and Rohit Agrawal

    Final Report

    Submitted as part of the course ABEN487: Senior Design Project

    Project Advisors

    Dr. Scott Pryor and Dr. Dennis Wiesenborn

    Course Instructor

    Dr. Ganesh Bora

    Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

    North Dakota State University

    Fargo, ND

    May, 2010

  • 2

    Table of Contents

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... 6

    CHAPTER I .................................................................................................................................................. 7

    INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 7

    1.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................................................................... 7

    1.2 RATIONALE ...................................................................................................................................... 8

    1.3 OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................... 9

    CHAPTER II ............................................................................................................................................... 10

    LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................................... 10

    2.1 SYNGAS AT INDUSTRIAL-SCALE ............................................................................................. 10

    2.2 CHEMICAL CATALYSIS OF SYNGAS ........................................................................................ 11

    2.3 SYNGAS AT PILOT-SCALE .......................................................................................................... 12

    2.3.1 Syngas fermentation facility ...................................................................................................... 12

    2.3.2 Bubble Column Design and Operation .................................................................................... 13

    2.4 SYNGAS AT LAB SCALE .............................................................................................................. 14

    2.4.1 Bacterium as Biocatalyst: .......................................................................................................... 15

    2.4.2 Media for Clostridium ljungdahlii: ............................................................................................ 16

    1 st Method ........................................................................................................................................... 18

    2 nd

    Method ........................................................................................................................................... 18

    3 rd

    Method ........................................................................................................................................... 19

    CHAPTER III ............................................................................................................................................. 20

    MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................... 20

    3.1 MATERIALS .................................................................................................................................... 20

    3.2 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 20

    3.3 ORGANISM AND INOCULUM PREPARATIONS ...................................................................... 21

    3.3.1. Clostridium Ljungdahlii ............................................................................................................ 21

    3.3.2. Media ........................................................................................................................................ 21

    CHAPTER IV ............................................................................................................................................. 28

    PROCEDURE AND EQUIPMENTS ......................................................................................................... 28

    4.1 THEORY .......................................................................................................................................... 28

    4.2 SYNGAS SOURCE .......................................................................................................................... 30

    4.3 DESIGN OF THE SETUP ................................................................................................................ 30

  • 3

    4.3.1 TYPE I ....................................................................................................................................... 31

    1) Design 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 31

    2) Design 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 33

    4.3.2 TYPE II ...................................................................................................................................... 34

    1) Design 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 34

    2) Design 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 35

    4.3.3 MASS –BALANCE DIAGRAM ............................................................................................... 36

    CHAPTER V .............................................................................................................................................. 37

    DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................................. 37

    MASS TRANSFER TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................... 38

    1. Use of Micro-sparger .................................................................................................................. 38

    2. Increasing the syngas flow rate ................................................................................................... 38

    3. Use of hollow fiber membrane reactors ...................................................................................... 38

    DESIGN SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS ............................................................................................ 39

    CASE STUDY ........................................................................................................................................ 39

    CHAPTER VI ............................................................................................................................................. 41

    CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................... 41

    Appendix 1 .................................................................................................................................................. 43

    Appendix 2 .................................................................................................................................................. 45

  • 4

    LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE 1 LIST OF ELEMENTS REQUIRED FOR ORIGINAL BASAL MEDIA, DEFINED MEDIA AND

    DESIGNED MEDIA. DESIGNED MEDIA WAS THE MEDIA DESIGNED FOR MAXIMUM

    CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL/ACETATE ................................................................................................. 17

    TABLE 2 LIST OF GROWTH MEDIA REQUIRED FOR BACTERIAL CULTURE ................................................... 22

    TABLE 3 LIST OF TRACE ELEMENTS REQUIRED FOR CULTURE MEDIA ........................................................ 22

    TABLE 4 LIST OF WOLF’S VITAMIN SOLUTION .................................................................................................... 23

    TABLE 6 THE LIST OF CHEMICALS REQUIRED FOR THE PREPARATION OF BASAL MEDIUM ................... 27

  • 5

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE 1 LINE DIAGRAM OF THE PROCESS OCCURRING INSIDE THE TRICKLE BED REACTOR

    (KASTEREN ET AL., 2005) ................................................................................................................................ 11

    FIGURE 2 A FLOW CHART OF GROWTH OF BACTERIAL STRAIN WITH THE USED OF CLOSTRIDIA

    GROWTH MEDIA AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION USING BASAL MEDIA .................................................. 26

    FIGURE 4 THE FLOW DIAGRAM OF OVERALL PROCESS FOR LAB SCALE FERMENTATION DESIGN ........ 28

    FIGURE 5 THE SHAKER INCUBATOR AVAILABLE AT NDSU PILOT PLANT TO BE USED IN TECHNIQUE I 31

    FIGURE 6 THE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR DESIGN I OF TECHNIQUE TYPE I

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