definition, elements, types, and genres of poetry

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POETRYGROUP 6 (B)Rabiatul Hamidah (A1B214041)Rizki Amalia (A1B214049)

DEFINITION OF POETRYPoetry is a form of writing that uses not only words, but also form, patterns of sound, imagery, and figurative language to convey the message.

ELEMENTS OF POETRYRhythmRhymeAlliterationAssonanceStanzasImageryDiction

RhythmRhythm is a literary device which demonstrates the long and short patterns through stressed and unstressed syllables particularly in verse form.Rhythm in writing acts as beat does in music. The use of rhythm in poetry arises from the need that some words are to be produced more strongly than others. They might be stressed for longer period of time.Example:Twohouseholds, both alikeindignity,InfairVerona, where we lay our scene,Fromancient grudge break to new mutiny,Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.From forth the fatal loins of these two foesA pair of star-crossd lovers take their life;(Romeo Juliet byShakespeare)

RhymeA rhyme is a repetition of similar sounding words occurring at the end of lines in poems or songs. A rhyme is a tool utilizing repeating patterns that brings rhythm or musicality in poems which differentiate them from prose which is plain. A rhyme is employed for the specific purpose of rendering a pleasing effect to a poem which makes its recital an enjoyable experience.Example:Humpty Dumpty sat on awall,Humpty Dumpty had a greatfall.All the Kings horses, And all the KingsmenCouldnt put Humpty togetheragain!

AlliterationAlliteration is derived from Latins Latira. It means letters of alphabet. It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.Example:From Samuel Taylor Coleridges The Rime of the Ancient MarinerThe fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,The furrow followed free;We were the first that ever burstInto that silent sea.In the above lines we see alliteration (b, f and s) in the phrases breeze blew, foam flew, furrow followed, and silent sea.

AssonanceAssonance takes place when two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds. Assonance is primarily used in poetry in order to add rhythm and music, by adding an internal rhyme to a poem.Example:William Wordsworth employs assonance to create aninternal rhymein his poem Daffodils:I wandered lonely as a cloudThat floats on high oer vales and hills,When all at once I saw a crowd,A host, of golden daffodils;Beside the lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing in the breeze

StanzasIn poetry, a stanza is a division of four or more lines having a fixed length, meter or rhyming scheme. Stanza divides a poem in such a way that does not harm its balance but rather it adds to thebeautyto the symmetry of a poem. Moreover, it allows poets to shift their moods and present different subject matters in their poems.Traditional English language poems have the following kinds of stanzas:CoupletTercetQuatrainQuintainSestet

Couplet : It consists of two rhyming lines having the samemeter.Tercet : A tercet comprises three lines following a same rhyming schemea a aor have a rhyming patterna b a. Sir Thomas Wyatt introduced tercet in 16th century.Quatrain : It is a form of stanza popularized by a Persian poet, Omar Khayyam, who called it a Rubai. It has common rhyming schemesa a a a, a a b b, a b a b.Quintain : Quintain also referred to as cinquain is a stanza of five lines which may be rhymed or unrhymed and has a typical stress pattern. Its invention is attributed to Crapsey.Sestet : Sestetis a kind of stanza that consists of six lines. It is the second division of Italian or sonnets of Petrarch following an octave or the first division comprising eight lines.

ImageryImagerymeans to usefigurative languageto represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses.Example:Imagery of light and darkness is repeated many times inShakespeares Romeo and JulietO, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!It seems she hangs upon the cheek of nightLike a rich jewel in an Ethiopes ear;Romeo praises Juliet by saying that she appears more radiant than the brightly lit torches in the hall. He says that at night her face glows like a bright jewel shining against the dark skin of an African. Through the contrasting images of light and dark, Romeo portrays Julietsbeauty.

DictionDiction can be defined asstyleof speaking or writing determined by the choice of words by a speaker or a writer.Example:Keatsin his Ode to the Grecian Urn uses formal diction to achieve a certain effect. He goes:Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheardAre sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes, play onNotice the use of formal ye instead of informal you. The formality here is due to the respect the urn inspires in Keats. In the same poem he says:Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shedYour leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu.It is more formal to use adieu than to say goodbye.

TYPES OF POETRYSonnetVillanelleHaikuLimerick OdeEpic PoetryElegyEpitaphFree verseBallad

SonnetThe word sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto. It means a small or little song or lyric. In poetry, a sonnet has 14 fourteen. Each line has 10 syllables. It has a specific rhyme scheme.Generally, sonnets are divided into different groups based on the rhyme scheme they follow. The rhymes of a sonnet are arranged according to a certain rhyme scheme. The rhyme scheme in English is usually abab-cdcd-efef-gg.


VillanelleIt is defined as a poetic device which requires a poem to have 19 lines and a fixed form. It has five tercets (first 15 lines), aquatrain(last four lines), and acoupletat the end of the quatrain.

HaikuA haiku poem has three lines, where the first and last lines have five moras, while the middle line has seven. The pattern in Japanesegenreis 5-7-5. The mora is another name of a sound unit, which is like a syllable, but it is different from a syllable. As the moras cannot be translated into English, they are modified and syllables are used instead. The lines of such poems rarelyrhymewith each other.Example:Old ponda frog jumpsthe sound of water(Old Pondby Basho)

OdeOde is a literary technique that is lyrical in nature, but not very lengthy. You have often read odes in which poets praise people, natural scenes, and abstract ideas. It is highly solemn and serious in its tone and subject matter, and usually is used with elaborate patterns of stanzas. However, the tone is often formal.Example:Row after row with strict impunityThe headstones yield their names to the element,The wind whirrs without recollection;In the riven troughs the splayed leavesPile up, of nature the casual sacramenTo the seasonal eternity of death(Ode to the Confederate Deadby Allen Tate)

Epic Epic It is a form of poem, often written inblank verse, lengthy in size in which poet showsprotagonistin action of historical significance or great mythic.Example:Come slowly, EdenLips unused to thee.Bashful, sip thy jasmines,As the fainting bee,Reaching late his flower,Round her chamber hums,Counts his nectarsalights,And is lost in balms!(Come Slowly, Edenby Emily Dickinson)

ElegyA melancholic poem in which poet laments the death of a subject, however, consoles towards the end is called elegy.

Example -----------------

Epitaph Epitaph A small poem used as an inscription on tombstone of dead person.Example:

Free verseFree Verse It consists of non-rhyming lines, without any metrical pattern, but follows a naturalrhythm.Example:Come slowly, EdenLips unused to thee.Bashful, sip thy jasmines,As the fainting bee,Reaching late his flower,Round her chamber hums,Counts his nectarsalights,And is lost in balms!(Come Slowly, Edenby Emily Dickinson)

Ballad Ballad It is a type ofnarrativepoem narrates a story, often talks about folk or legendary tales. It may take a form ofmorallesson or a song.Example:Tam Linis an example of a popular (traditional) ballad.O I forbid you, maiden all,That wears gold in your hair,To come or go by CarterhaughFor young Tam Lin is there.

Limerick Limerick This is a type of humorous poem with five anapestic lines in which first, second and fifth lines have three feet and third and fourth have two feet with a strictrhymescheme of aabba.Example:There was a young lady of stationIloveman was her sole exclamationBut when men cried, You flatterShe replied, Oh! no matterIsle of Man is the true explanation.(From To Miss Vera Beringer by Lewis Carroll)

KINDS (GENRES) OF POETRYNarrative poetryDramatic poetryLyrical poetry

Narrative Poetry

A Poem that tells a story, and has the elements of a story. Often Narrative poems have a rhyme scheme.The Raven-Edgar Allen Poe

Dramatic Poetry

A poem where the speaker is someone other then the poet themselves. A Dramatic poem often includes characters and dialogue. A Dramatic Monologue is often from a fictional characters point of view.



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