definition, elements, genres, and types of fiction
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FICTIONRabiatul Hamidah (A1B214041)Rizki Amallia (A1B214049)
Your Sub PointsFiction is the dream of the writer, made visible on the page. It may be the writers lived experience or it may be entirely imagined.Fiction,literature created from the imagination, not presented as fact, though it may be based on a true story or situation. 1. Definition
2. Elements of FictionCharacter-a person, an animal, or an imaginary creature that takes the part in the action of the story.
http://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/elements-of-fiction-1220634613791037-8.ppt?response-content-disposition=attachment&Signature=iiUfPOsBHJ95GDaQrG%2BwF%2FBx%2Bo4%3D&Expires=1477533719&AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ6D6SEMXSASXHDAQ Character Types: Protagonist- the main character of the story that is most central to the action of the story.
Antagonist- the person or thing working against the protagonist, or hero, in the story.
Static Characters- characters that stay the same throughout the story.
Dynamic Characters- characters that change and learn something during the story.
Flat very few personality traits, do not change throughout the story, sometimes can be symbols or stereotypes
Round convincing and true to life, many different personality traits, usually undergo a change during the story
physical appearance and personalityspeech, behavior , and actionsthoughts and feelingsinteractions with other characters
b. Characterization - the techniques an author uses to develop the personality of a character in a literary work.
c. Setting The time and place in which the action occurs. Look for clues in the opening paragraphs of the story or novel.
It is refers to who tells the story and how it is told
1st person- the story is told by one of the characters in the story. The character uses the pronouns I and we.
3rd person- the story is told by the narrator who stands outside of the story and observes the events as they unfold. The narrator uses the pronouns she, he, and they.
d. Point of view
e. Plot Plot, the action element in fiction, is the arrangement of events that make up a story. It is based on a key conflict. There are five basic parts of plot:
Exposition- the first part of the story. The author establishes the setting, introduces characters, gives additional background information.
Rising Action/Complications- the series of conflicts or struggles that build a story toward its climax. Tension rises.
Climax- the high point, or turning point, of a story. It is the most intense point. A decision is made that will decide the outcome of the conflict.
Falling Action- the action that works out the decision arrived at during the climax. The conflict is or begins to be settled.
Resolution- the ending. It ties up loose ends and brings the story to a close.
Theme is the central idea or meaning of a story.
A symbol is a person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract that is literal significance.Universal Symbols: water = purity
black clouds = evil approaching
Tone is the authors implicit attitude toward the reader, subject, and/or the people, places, and events in a work as revealed by the elements of the authors style.
Genres of Fiction
The two main types of fictionCommercial fiction attracts a broad audience and may also fall into anysubgenre,like mystery, romance, legal thriller, western, science fiction, etc.
Literary fiction tends to appeal to a smaller, more intellectually adventurous audience.
Other types of fictionMysteryis a popular genre, boasting a huge established audience. All mysteries focus on a crime, usually murder.
Romance is a type of category fiction in which the love relationship between a man and a woman pervades the plot.
Science fiction can be defined as literature involving elements of science and technology as a basis for conflict, or as the setting for a story.
Suspense novels and thrillersare tense, exciting, often sensational works with ingenious plotting, swift action, and continuous suspense.
Mainstream fiction is transcends popular novel categoriesmystery, romance or science fiction, etc.
Western, these novels about life on Americas post Civil War western frontier usually involve conflicts between cowboys and outlaws, cowboys and Native Americans, or Easterners and Westerners.
Horror, the characteristic is the intention to frighten readers by exploiting their fears, both conscious and subconscious.
Young adults, this genre includes any type of novel with a protagonist in the 12 to 16 age range that speaks to the concerns of teenagers.
Historical fictionRealistic fictionFantasyScience fictionMystery2. Fiction Genres
a. Historical fictionA fictional story set in a recognizable period of history. As well as telling the stories of ordinary peoples lives, historical fiction may involve political or social events of the time.
b. Realistic fiction
Imaginative writing that accurately reflects life as it could be lived today. Everything is a realistic fiction story could conceivably happen to real people living in todays natural physical world. Realistic fiction helps children move toward a fuller understanding of themselves and others.https://www2.k12albemarle.org/dept/instruction/languagearts/Curriculum%20Appendices/AppendixF_GenreDef.pdf
Requires the willing suspension of disbelief. Fantasy creates another world for characters and readers, asking that the reader believe this other world could exist. There are twotypes of fantasy fantastic stories and high fantasy.
1. Fantastic stories - are realistic in most details but still require the reader to willingly suspend disbelief. They contain fantastic elements, such as talking animals, eccentric characters in preposterous situations, anthropomorphism, or extraordinary worlds. Charlottes Web (White) and Tuck Everlasting (Babbitt) are examples.c. Fantasy
2. High fantasy - takes place is a created world or imaginary kingdom. Serious in tone, the story primarily focuses on the conflict between opposing forces, and concerns itself with cosmic questions and ultimate values, such as goodness, truth, courage, or wisdom. The Book of Three (Alexander), The Chronicles of Narnia (Lewis), and The Hobbit (Tolkien) are examples.
Science fiction can be defined as literature involving elements of science and technology as a basis for conflict, or as the setting for a story. Example:
d. Science fiction
Humans and Technology- Stories describing how humans interact with computers, nanotechnology, bioengineering, virtual reality, artificial intelligences, or other parts of technologically driven society. These stories often question the concept of what it means to be human. (I, Robot, Terminator)
Presents a puzzle or riddle to be solved. Mysteries contain a character who acts as thedetective, and contain clues to help he reader solve the puzzle. Mysteries written for older students have a suspenseful mood and contain foreshadowing.e. Mysteryhttps://www2.k12albemarle.org/dept/instruction/languagearts/Curriculum%20Appendices/AppendixF_GenreDef.pdf
3. Types of Fiction
g. Mythe. LegendNovelFableShort storyFolk taleLegendNovella Myth Fairy taleepicd. Folk talec. Short storyb. Fablea. Noveli. epich. Fairy talef. Novella
a. Novel Novel,an inventedprosenarrativeof considerable length and a certain complexity that deals imaginatively with human experience, usually through a connected sequence of events involving a group of persons in a specificsetting. Within its broad framework, thegenreof the novel has encompassed an extensive range of types and styles: picaresque, epistolary, Gothic, romantic, realist, historicalto name only some of the more important ones.https://www.britannica.com/art/novella
b. Short StoryShort story,brief fictionalprose narrativethat is shorter than anovel and that usually deals with only a few characters.A brief story usually 5-20 pages long. only has 1-2 main characters and one main setting.
A fable is a very brief story in prose or in verse that teaches a moral or a practical lesson about how to succeed in life.
A fable is a very brief story in prose or in verse that teaches a moral or a practical lesson about how to succeed in life.http://schoolwires.henry.k12.ga.us/cms/lib08/GA01000549/Centricity/Domain/6909/Folklore%20PPT-fables-myths-folktales-%20fairytales.ppt
The Tortoise and Fable the Hare The Hare was once boasting of his speed before the other animals. "I have never yet been beaten," said he, "when I put forth my full speed. I challenge any one here to race with me."
The Tortoise said quietly, "I accept your challenge."
"That is a good joke," said the Hare; "I could dance round you all the way."
"Keep your boasting till you've beaten," answered the Tortoise. "Shall we race?"
So a course was fixed and a start was made. The Hare darted almost out of sight at once, but soon stopped and, to show his contempt for the Tortoise,