Defensive Driving Tips for CMV Drivers

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Defensive Driving Tips for CMV Drivers

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<ul><li><p>Defensive Driving Tips for CMV Drivers: An Internet-Based Approach </p><p>September 2009</p></li><li><p>FOREWORD </p><p>The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) awarded a contract to develop a web-based training tool. The purpose of this website is to show common driving errors made by Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) drivers. This website will be available to the public through the FMCSA website (http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/about/outreach/education/driverTips/index.htm), and is intended to be used by fleet safety mangers and CMV drivers as part of their training process. The purpose of this report was to document the steps taken in developing the website and to show the final content. </p><p>NOTICE </p><p>This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. </p><p>This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. </p><p>The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the objective of this report. </p></li><li><p> Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. FMCSA RRT-09-003 </p><p>2. Government Accession No. </p><p>3. Recipients Catalog No. </p><p>5. Report Date September 2009 </p><p>4. Title and Subtitle DEFENSIVE DRIVING TIPS FOR CMV DRIVERS: AN INTERNET-BASED APPROACH 6. Performing Organization Code: </p><p> 7. Author(s) Santosh Gupta, Rebecca Olson, Richard Hanowski </p><p>8. Performing Organization Report No. </p><p>10. Work Unit No. </p><p>9. Performing Organization Name and Address Center for Truck and Bus Safety Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 3500 Transportation Research Plaza (0536) Blacksburg, VA 24061 </p><p>11. Contract or Grant No. DTMC75-07-D-00006 (Task Order #2) </p><p>13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report July 2007October 2008 </p><p>12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20590 14. Sponsoring Agency Code </p><p> 15. Supplementary Notes This program was managed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The Contracting Officers Technical Representative was Martin Walker, PhD. 16. Abstract The main objective of this study was to develop a web-based driving tips website to be used by commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers and fleet safety managers to show common large-truck driving errors and to provide tips on how to avoid such errors. The website, hosted on the FMCSA website, is accessible to the public. The website is intended to be used as a supplemental CMV driver training tool and is not intended to replace any of the current classroom or on-road training methods that are currently being used. The website contains real-world video clips of CMV drivers who were recorded making various driving errors. It is hoped that the CMV web-based driving tips website, with support from the naturalistic driving video clips, will provide drivers with compelling information to support safe driving. 17. Key Words commercial motor vehicle, CMV, defensive driving, driving tips, website, naturalistic data, internet, training </p><p>18. Distribution Statement No restrictions. </p><p>19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified </p><p>20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified </p><p>21. No. of Pages 102 </p><p>22. Price </p><p>Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed pages authorized </p></li><li><p> SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS Table of APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS </p><p>Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol LENGTH in inches 25.4 millimeters mm ft feet 0.305 meters m yd yards 0.914 meters m mi miles 1.61 kilometers km AREA in square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm ft square feet 0.093 square meters m yd square yards 0.836 square meters m ac acres 0.405 hectares ha mi square miles 2.59 square kilometers km VOLUME Note: Volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m </p><p>fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL gal gallons 3.785 liters L ft cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m yd cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m MASS oz ounces 28.35 grams g lb pounds 0.454 kilograms kg T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or metric ton) Mg (or t) TEMPERATURE Temperature is in exact degrees F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32) 9 </p><p>or (F-32) 1.8 Celsius C </p><p> ILLUMINATION fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m cd/m Force and Pressure or Stress lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N lbf/in poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa </p><p>Table of APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol LENGTH mm millimeters 0.039 inches in m meters 3.28 feet ft m meters 1.09 yards yd km kilometers 0.621 miles mi AREA mm square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in m square meters 10.764 square feet ft m square meters 1.195 square yards yd ha hectares 2.47 acres ac km square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi VOLUME mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz L liters 0.264 gallons gal m cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft m cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd MASS g grams 0.035 ounces oz kg kilograms 2.202 pounds lb Mg (or t) megagrams (or metric ton) 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T TEMPERATURE Temperature is in exact degrees C Celsius 1.8C + 32 Fahrenheit F ILLUMINATION lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc cd/m candela/m 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl Force &amp; Pressure or Stress N newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in </p><p>* SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. (Revised March 2003, Section 508-accessible version September 2009) </p><p>ii </p></li><li><p> TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>LIST OF ACRONYMS .............................................................................................................. VI </p><p>EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................VII </p><p>1. .................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTIONPROJECT OVERVIEW .........................................................................................................1 </p><p>OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................................2 </p><p>2. ....................................................................................................3 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 ......................................................................................3 WEB DESIGN GUIDELINES</p><p>2.1.1 ....................................................................................... 3 User-Centered Design2.1.2 .......................................................................................... 4 Usability Guidelines2.1.3 ........................................................................................................... 6 Summary</p><p>2.2 ....................................................................................................6 DRIVER TRAINING2.2.1 ............................................................................... 6 Purpose of Driver Training2.2.2 ............................................................. 7 Driver Improvement Training Sources2.2.3 ........................................................................................................... 8 Summary</p><p>2.3 .................................................9 NATURALISTIC DATA AND VIDEO EXAMPLES2.3.1 ........................................................................... 9 Naturalistic Data Availability2.3.2 .............................................. 10 Purpose and Effectiveness of Video Examples</p><p>2.4 ........................................................................................................11 DRIVER ERROR2.4.1 ............................................................................... 11 Categorizing Driver Error</p><p>2.5 .....................................................................12 NATURALISTIC DRIVING STUDIES2.5.1 .................................................................... 12 Review of CMV Driving Studies2.5.2 ........................................ 16 Review of the Large Truck Crash Causation Study2.5.3 ......................................................................................................... 17 Summary</p><p>2.6 ...........................................................................................................18 DRIVING TIPS2.6.1 .................................... 18 Driver Errors and Associated Preventative Measures2.6.2 .......................................................... 19 Non-Performance-Based Driver Errors2.6.3 ..................................................................... 20 Recognition-Based Driver Error2.6.4 .......................................................................... 22 Decision-Based Driver Error2.6.5 ......................................................................................................... 26 Summary</p><p>2.7 .................................................................27 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW</p><p>iii </p></li><li><p> 3. ...............................................................................................29 </p><p>A WEBINAR WITH SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS ON DEFENSIVE DRIVING TIPS FOR CMV DRIVERS3.1 .......................................................................................................29 INTRODUCTION</p><p>3.2 ...............................................................................29 PRE-WEBINAR PROCEDURES</p><p>3.3 ..........................................................................................29 WEBINAR PROCEDURE</p><p>3.4 ....................................................................................................................30 RESULTS3.4.1 ...................................... 30 Driver Error #1: Traveling Too Fast for Conditions.3.4.2 ............................................... 31 Driver Error #2: Unfamiliarity with Roadway.3.4.3 ...................................................... 32 Driver Error #3: Inadequate Surveillance.3.4.4 ..................................................................... 33 Driver Error #4: Driver Fatigue.3.4.5 ................................................................. 34 Driver Error #5: Illegal Maneuver.3.4.6 ........................................................................... 35 Driver Error #6: Inattention.3.4.7 ............................................................ 35 Driver Error #7: External Distraction.3.4.8 ....................................................... 36 Driver Error #8: Following Too Closely.3.4.9 ............................................................. 37 Driver Error #9: Internal Distraction.3.4.10 ............................................... 37 Driver Error #10: Inadequate Evasive Action.</p><p>3.5 .................................................................................................................38 SUMMARY</p><p>4. .................................................................39 WEBSITE TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS4.1 ...............................................................................39 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS</p><p>4.2 .................................................................................................................39 SUMMARY</p><p>5. .............................................................41 OBTAINING PERMISSION TO USE VIDEOS5.1 ..............................................................................................41 DRIVER PERMISSION</p><p>5.1.1 ..................................................... 41 Review and Selection of Video Data Clips5.1.2 .......................................................................................... 41 Contacting Drivers5.1.3 .................................... 41 Obtaining Driver Permission/Consent to Use Videos</p><p>5.2 .................................................................................................................42 SUMMARY</p><p>6. ...........43 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CMV WEB-BASED DRIVING TIPS WEBSITE6.1 ...................................................................................................43 WEBSITE FORMAT</p><p>6.2 ..................................................................................43 DRAFT REVISION PROCESS</p><p>7. .........................................................................................................................45 SUMMARY7.1 ......................................................................................46 CMV DRIVER FEEDBACK</p><p>7.2 .................................................................................................46 VIDEO NARRATION</p><p>7.3 ...................................................................................................46 VISOR TIP SHEETS</p><p>iv </p></li><li><p> v </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................87 </p><p>REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................89 </p><p>LIST OF APPENDICES </p><p>APPENDIX A: INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT FOR WEBINAR WITH FLEET SAFETY MANAGERS ......................................................................................................47 </p><p>APPENDIX B: INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT FOR OBTAINING DRIVER PERMISSION TO USE VIDEO CLIPS...........................................................................49 </p><p>APPENDIX C: COVER LETTER FOR DRIVER INSTRUCTIONS ...................................53 </p><p>APPENDIX D: SCREENSHOTS OF FINAL CMV WEB-BASED DRIVING TIPS WEBSITE............................................................................................................................55 </p><p>LIST OF TABLES </p><p>Table 1. Frequency and Percentage of Potential Driver-Related Factors.....................................14 Table 2. Driver Error Assigned in Large-Truck Crashes..............................................................16 </p></li><li><p> LIST OF ACRONYMS </p><p>Acronym Definition CDL commercial drivers license </p><p>CMV commercial motor vehicle </p><p>DAS data acquisition system </p><p>DDWS FOT Drowsy Driver Warning System Field Operational Test </p><p>DMV Department of Motor Vehicles </p><p>FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration </p><p>GVWR gross vehicle weight rating </p><p>HOS hours of service </p><p>IRB Institutional Review Board </p><p>L/SH local/short haul </p><p>LTCCS Large-Truck-Crash Causation Study </p><p>NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration </p><p>SUV sport utility vehicle </p><p>vi </p></li><li><p> EXECUTIVE SUMMARY </p><p>This report presents the work completed for the project titled Defensive Driving Tips for CMV Drivers: An Internet-Based Approach. The objective of this project was to develop a driving tips website for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers and fleet safety managers to show common large-truck driving errors. The website is to be included on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) website as web-base...</p></li></ul>