Debate V: Cross-examination Doris L. W. Chang. Outline (Johnston 92-98; 99-126) Refutation Review Refutation Review The Purpose of Cross-examination
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- Debate V: Cross-examination Doris L. W. Chang
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- Outline (Johnston 92-98; 99-126) Refutation Review Refutation Review The Purpose of Cross-examination The Purpose of Cross-examination The Goals of Cross-examination The Goals of Cross-examination Guidelines for the Cross-examinerfor the Cross-examiner Guidelines for the Cross-examineefor the Cross-examinee Using the Results of Cross-examination Using the Results Planning & Organizing Strategy Planning & Organizing Strategy Samples Practice Time
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- Refutation Review What is Refutation? What is Refutation Issues for Refutation Issues for Refutation How to Organize Your Refutation How to Organize Your Refutation
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- What Is Refutation? Refutation means using argumentation to show that the opposing position cannot be established (Johnston 92).
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- Issues for Refutation 1. Refute those contentions which are basic to our opponents casebasic to our opponents case 2. Refute those contentions which your opponent spends much time trying to establish.those contentions 3. Refute those contentions your opponent claims are major issues.major issues
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- Refute Contentions Basic to Opponents Case Aff.: Refute arguments that may damage your prima facie case predict how the neg. will challenge your position on stock issues. Neg. Refute the stock issues that form the aff. Prima facie case. predict the aff. position on the stock issues
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- Refute Key Contentions/Issues 1. Challenge the relevance of the contention to the debate proposition. 2. Challenge the evidence or argument that supports the contention
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- Organize the Refutation 1. Briefly state the position you intend to refute/ 2. State the nature of the problem in your opponents case. State the nature of the problem in your opponents case 3. Present your reasoning/evidence to support your refutation. 4. Show the effect of your refutation on your opponents case (or on your case.)
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- The Nature of the Problem in Your Opponents Case 1. Failing to address an important issue. 2. Unsupported assertion which is false, or at least lacks common presumption. 3. Argumentation containing a logical fallacy Conclusion not following from premises Conclusion irrelevant to premises 4. In-admissible evidence, evidence irrelevant to or insufficient to establish conclusion 5. A position that cant be discussed for its supported only by a vague or unverifiable statement.
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- The Purpose of Cross-examination 1. To discover information to be used as a basis of your refutation in a later speech 2. To discover information to be used as a basis of argumentation for your own contentions.
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- The Goals of Cross-examination 1. To explore, clarify, and better understand your opponents assertions, arguments, or position on stock issues. To seek out or confirm items (1-6).items (1-6). 2. To expose items above by asking questions according to a prepared strategy or refutation model. 3. To expose irrelevant issues so as to narrow the debate and focus on key issues. 4. To get your opponent to admit or concede points to be used to support or strengthen your own arguments.
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- Items 1-6 1. Any weakness of the opponents case regarding stock issues or issues you raised. 2. Assertions or unstated premises that are false or without common presumption. 3. Logical fallacies (of form or relevance). 4. Inadmissible or insufficient evidence. 5. Un-resolvable vagueness and ambiguity 6. Avoid distorting opponents assertion and attacking a straw man.
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- 6 Guidelines for Cross-examiner 1. Control your time by asking questions requiring a simple YES/NO answer. 2. Politely interrupt when your opponent Tries to say more than is needed to answer Q Isnt answer the Qs you asked Starts speaking without being asked a Q Starts to argue or give reasons for his answer
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- 3. Ask Questions, dont present arguments. If the opp. provides absurd or obviously false answers or refuses to admit a position, the x- exam. is successful. Just remind the judges in a later speech. Dont explain the results of your questioning during the x-exam. time, explain and draw conclusions in a later speech 6 Guidelines for Cross-examiner
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- 4. You must allow your opponent to answer your question. You may ask Qs that require a YES/NO answer You may not insist on a YES/NO answer if it distorts your opponents position. Avoid complex Q fallacies that distort their position. 5. Be polite and gentle. 6.Be sincere and fairavoid using sophisticated strategems to trick them into saying what they dont really mean. 6 Guidelines for Cross-examiner
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- 4 Guidelines for Cross-examinees 1. You must answer all Qs honestly and without wasting time. 2. You may qualify your answergive direct and honest answers that express your position, but you dont need to accept your opponents conditions if they distort your position. 3. You may not consult other team members. 4. You may ask the x-examiner to clarify/explain the meaning of a question which you honestly dont understand.
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- 5 Guidelines to Use X-exam. Results 1. Use the most effective x-exam. results in later speeches for better refutation. 2. Use the weaknesses in your opponents case that were exposed in x-exam. to refute their position on stock issues. 3. When your opp. responds to your x-exam. results, use their responses for future x- exam. or refutation.
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- 4. Prepare and organize your case as a team so as to use each others x-exam. results in later speeches. A good, organized x-exam./refutation strategy begins in x-exam. and ends in the final speech. 5. Follow guidelines 1-4 for organizing your refutation. 5 Guidelines to Use X-exam. Results
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- 8 Steps to Plan X-exmination 1. Make a list of arguments your opponent may present to support his position on each of the stock issues attack your position 2. Analyze the arguments. Find Ambiguities Unsupported assertions Unstated premises Incorrect evidences Logical fallacies
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- 3. Decide whether to use x-examination as a starting point of refutation or just rely on your speeches. 4. Plan your line of Qs (write the 1st Q) to force your opponent to take a definite position that you can refute. 5. Follow your opponent around with Qs until he has no place to go except taking a definite position. 8 Steps to Plan X-exmination
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- 6.Do your homework to predict your opponents possible answers and position prepare a refutation argument no matter what position your opponent takes 7. Plan to continue x-exam. to expose your opponents fallacy, or end your x-exam. on that issue and complete refutation in a later speech, after your opponent is forced to take a definite position 8.Be patient and dont give up. 8 Steps to Plan X-exmination
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- Reference Johnston, Greg. The Logic and Language of English Debate: A Practical Guide for Chinese Students of EFL. Taipei: Bookman, 1994.
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