Darfur Conflict. Perpetrators Omar al-Bashir (1944-present) President of Sudan since 1989 Main weapons supplier of Janjaweed Militia Janjaweed Militia

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<ul><li><p>Darfur Conflict</p></li><li><p>Perpetrators Omar al-Bashir (1944-present) President of Sudan since 1989 Main weapons supplier of Janjaweed MilitiaJanjaweed Militia(1973-present)Nomadic tribes people</p><p>When: April 25, 2003 February 24, 2010* *Officially signed CPA in 2006 however hostilities continue todayWho: Sudanese Government and Janjaweed Militia</p></li><li><p>VictimsDead: ~400,000 peopleCauses: Execution, rape, starvation, dehydrationTargets: Non-Arab Sudanese (Fur, Zeghawa, and Masalit tribes)Refugees: 2.5 - 2.7 million</p></li><li><p>Summary of Conflict - TimelineMay 5, 2006: Sudanese government and SLA sign a peace deal.19801980s: Climate change, famine, and tension between Arab and non-Arab Sudanese perpetuated political instability.</p><p>1990s: A lack of response from the Sudanese government concerning the drought and internal conflicts, led to frustration from non Arab Sudanese. April 25, 2003: Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice Equality Movement (JEM) attack airport destroying Sudanese Air Force planes.July 12, 2010: ICC issues arrest warrant for President al-Bashir.July 14, 2011: The Doha Document for Peace in Darfur was finalized and signed by Sudanese government and LJM. November 16, 2006: Establishment of the African Union United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).February 2015: HRW reports mass rape and possible crimes against humanity in Northern Darfur.</p></li><li><p>Whats Happening Now?July 2011: South Sudan gains independence and the conflict in Darfur fades into the background.2013: Aicha Elbasri, the former spokesperson for the UNAMID mission in Darfur resigned, accusing the UN of a conspiracy of silence over the worlds biggest forgotten war.June 25, 2014: HRW calls for the United Nations to investigate alleged cover-ups and manipulation of human rights reporting by UNAMID officials.February 11, 2015: HRW releases a report called Mass Rape in Darfur: Sudanese Army Attacks Against Civilians in Tabit which documents Sudanese army rapes at least 221 women and girls.March 11, 2015: UNAMID peacekeeping force to be cut back amid accusations of incompetence.</p></li><li><p>ResourcesHuman Rights Watch: http://www.hrw.org/africa/sudan Timeline: Five Years On: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/features/darfur/fiveyearson/timeline.html They Shot at Us as We Fled: Government Attacks on Civilians in West Darfur: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/darfur0508webwcover.pdf Eyes on Darfur: http://www.eyesondarfur.org/The Devil Came on Horseback the documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BJOfpJ8qVE </p><p>One of the more complex humanitarian crises of the 21st century, the Darfur Conflict is rooted in political, religious, cultural, ethnic and environmental factors. Non-Arab Christian and animist villages in the northwestern part of Sudan are attacked by Muslim Janjaweed Militia (considered to be ethnically Arab) supported by Sudanese government forces for land, water and other economic resources. </p><p>On April 25, 2003, members of the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) began attacking government military targets. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir mobilized what he called self-defense militias to counter the attacks. In general, civilians of the same ethnic groups as the SLA and JEM soldiers were considered threats for their potential support of the rebel armies. </p><p>The Janjaweed militia is unofficially supported by the Sudanese government to ride into villages on horseback and camel, killing men, raping women and abducting potential slaves and child soldiers. Refugees describe them as ferocious gun-wielding men who burn villages and steal whatever they can carry. The government has denied any connection to the Janjaweed militia force, however refugees and victims of attacked villages testify that they have seen government helicopters and weapons following Janjaweed into villages. *Civilians go about their daily lives in farming communities until warnings sound that soldiers are approaching. The most typical home in villages house many members of the same family, including elderly and widowed relatives. Huts tend to be round in shape. When huts are destroyed by attackers, the foundations are often left behind. Rings are clearly visible in many satellite images and provide evidence that an attack has occurred. </p><p>Because of the pervasive neglect of Darfurs infrastructure, most of the water is found outside the village, sometimes many hours walk away. Government forces have systematically targeted water sources and these sources have become sites for rape and murder. On average, 100+ people die daily, with 5,000 dying every month. </p><p>*The international community often tracks violence and destruction in Darfur via satellite images. These images show villages in various states of destruction. *The history of conflict in Darfur began long before the international community began calling for President Omar al-Bashirs arrest. On July 12, 2010, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir, alleging him criminally responsible for 10 counts on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility under the Rome Statute as an indirect perpetrator including: 5 counts of crimes against humanity, 2 counts of war crimes and 3 counts of genocide. Human Rights Watch continues to call for al-Bashirs arrest despite a lack of response from neighboring countries and allies. *The extended conflict and destruction in Darfur is problematic at best. Despite several peace agreements signed, ceasefires called for and broken, there appears to be no end to the violence in sight. </p><p>In 2013, the United Nations African Unions joint mission in Darfur was accused of a conspiracy of silence by Aicha Elbasri, the missions spokesperson. This came in conjunction with her resignation and further claims that UNAMID wasnt doing enough to publicize evidence of violations, including that Janjaweed were being integrated into Sudanese regular armed forces. </p><p>As weve said already, the conflict in Darfur continues unabated today. Almost half a million people were displaced in 2014 alone, the highest annual total since 2004. Also, President al-Bashir remains the only sitting head of state to have outstanding charges of genocide.</p><p>On October 30, 2014, over the course of 36 hours, Sudanese army troops carried out a series of attacks against the civilian population of the town of Tabit in North Darfur. The attacks included the mass rape of women and girls and the arbitrary detention, beating and ill-treatment of scores of people. The government of Sudan has denied that any crimes occurred but has prevented the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) from carrying out a credible investigation of the incident. Human Rights Watch has claimed that these attacks may amount to crimes against humanity. HRW continues to investigate the conflict and raise awareness of the human rights atrocities committed by both the government/Janjaweed officials and the SLA/JEM soldiers. </p><p>*</p></li></ul>