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  • Dairy Products Technology 1

    Dairy Products Technology(Dairy Technology)

    Student Handbook


    Class XII

    Central Board of SeCondary eduCation, delhiShiksha Kendra, 2 Community Centre, Preet Vihar, delhi-110092 india

  • 2 Dairy Products Technology

    Fluid Milk Processing Students Handbook for Class XI

    Price :rs. 285.00

    Firstedition2013cBse, india

    coPies : 1,000

    This Book or part thereof may not be reproduced by any person or agency in any manner.

    PuBlISHeD By : thesecretary,central Boardofsecondary education,shiksha Kendra, 2,communitycentre,PreetVihar, delhi-110092

    DeSIgn, layouT : deeKay Printers, 5/37Kirtinagar,newdelhi-110015 Phone : 25414260

    PrInTeD By : shree BalajiPrinters,B-266, iind Floor,VivekVihar, Phase-i, delhi-110095

  • Dairy Products Technology 3

    PrefaceAt present india is the world leader in milk production with an annualproduction of 127 million tonnes. About 50 percent of the milk is handledby the organized sector. domestic market for value added products likebutter, ice cream, cheese, dairy whiteners and spreads is growing at 8-10percent per year. despite the large infrastructure available for processing ofmilk, only 27% of the total milk produced is at present converted into valueadded products. consumption of large quantities of liquid milk at the site ofproduction and poor post-harvest handling and processing are among thereasonsfor lowvalueadditionofmilk.WiththelaunchofthenationaldairyPlan,milkproductioninindiaislikelytoincreaseover4to5percentannuallyin the next two decades.the increasing demands and the accompanyingvalue addition present a great opportunity for the dairy industry to take upthe production and marketing of various dairy products especially traditionalproducts on an industrial scale. Accordingly the demand for professionalswith formal education in dairy technology would be increasing.

    theattemptofcBse, to introducedairytechnologycourses forclassXii is to encourage young minds to begin their career in dairying. in thepresent book, the composition, standards, methods and equipment used formanufacturingdifferent dairy products viz. traditional indian dairy products,westerndairyproductsanddairybyproductshasbeenincluded.theobjectiveofthisbookistomakeunderstandthestudentsthediversityofdairyproducts,theirprinciplesofmanufacturingand legalstandardsprevalent in thecountrythat governmarketingof theseproducts.

    Vineet Joshi, IaSchairman,cBse

  • 4 Dairy Products Technology


    l Dr. rameshwar Singh, Projectdirector(dKMA),directorateofKnowledge,ManagementinAgriculture,5th Floor,KrishiAnusandhan Bhawan - i,Pusa,newdelhi-110002

    l Dr. a.K. Srivastava, director,nationaldairyresearch institute (ndri),Karnal- 132001,Haryana

    l Dr. P. narender raju,scientist,dairy,technologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Dr. Pradip Behare,scientist,dairyMicrobiologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Mr. Devraja,scientist, dairytechnologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Mr. yogesh Khetra,scientist, dairytechnologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Dr. Kaushik Kharui, seniorscientist,dairytechnologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Mr. Shaik abdul Hussain,scientist,dairytechnologydivision,ndri,Karnal

    l Dr. Biswajit Saha, Programmeofficer,Vocationaleducation,cBse,delhi

    l Shri Dharampal Singh,Formerdirector,edUsAt&Vocationaleducation,andconsultant(Agriculture),cBse,delhi

    l Mrs Pragya gaur, consultant (science),cBse,delhi

    SPeCIal aCKnowleDgeMenT

    auTHor grouP


    l Dr. S. ayyappan, secretary, dAre & director general, icAr, Krishi Bhavan, new delhi-110001

    l Sh. Vineet Joshi, iAs,chairman,cBse,delhi


    l Dr. P. narender raju,scientist,technicaleditor,technologydivision,ndri,Karnal-132001

    l Dr. Pradip Behare,scientist,technicalco-editor,ndri,Karnal-132001

    TeCHnICal grouP

  • Dairy Products Technology 5

  • Dairy Products Technology 7


    chapter 1composition,standards,Manufacturing -Process andequipmentsand defects duringManufacturingandstorageofcream,Butter,ghee,Khoa, channa,Paneer 1

    chapter 2composition,standards,Manufacturing -Process andequipmentsand defects duringManufacturingandstorageofcurd/dahi,Yoghurt,chakka, shrikhand,cheese 38

    chapter 3composition,standards,Manufacturing -Process andequipmentsand defects duringManufacturingandstorageofsofty, icecream,Kulfi 58

    chapter 4composition,standards,Manufacturing -Process andequipmentsand defects duringManufacturingandstorageofdriedandcondensedMilk Products (MilkPowder-skimMilk,WholeMilk,Whitner,condensedMilk) 74

    chapter 5composition,standards,Manufacturing -Process andequipmentsand defects duringManufacturingandstorageofdairyByproducts (skimMilk, casein,caseinate,Whey-concentrate,Powder, Lactose,gheeresidue) 100

    chapter 6sensoryevaluation ofMilk andMilkProducts 126

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    Dairy Products TechnologyTheory

    (Time 120 hrs)

    S. no. Chapter Hours weightege (Marks)

    1. Chapter 1 25 12.5

    2. Chapter 2 20 10

    3. Chapter 3 20 10

    4. Chapter 4 25 12.5

    5. Chapter 5 20 10

    6. Chapter 6 10 5

  • Dairy Products Technology 1

    Chapter-1Composition, Standards, Manufacturing Process and Equipment and Defects during Manufacturing and Storage of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Chhana and Paneer


    to learn the Production, Processing andstorage ofcream


    in the indian dietary regimen, milk fat in the form of cream, butter and ghee contributessignificantly towardsnourishmentofpeopleofalmostallagegroups.theseproductsaregood sources of fat soluble vitamins A, d, e and K. in the ancient vedic literature it ismentionedthatgheederivedfromcowmilkhasgotexcellentnutritionalandtonicqualitiesspeciallybeneficialtopersonsconvalescingafterchronicillnessandbonefracture.creamisa fat richcomponentandhasbeenknownfromtime immemorialas thefatty layer thatrisestothetopportionofthemilkwhenleftundisturbed.creamissoldinmanyvarieties.Although used for several purposes, it is primarily something of a luxury because of itsexcellent flavor, body and texture.


    cream may be defined as that portion of milk which is rich in milk fat or that portion ofmilk into which fat has been gathered and which contains a large portion of milk fat, orwhen milk fat is concentrated into a fractionof theoriginal milk.

    According to the Fssr rules (2011), cream excluding sterilized cream is the product ofcow or buffalo milk or a combination there of which conations not less than 25 per centmilk fat (table 1.1). Cream is rich in energy giving fat and fat-soluble vitamins A, d, e,and K, the contents of whichdependson the fat level in cream.

  • 2 Dairy Products Technology


    creamisnotadefinitespecificsubstance.itcontainsallthemilkconstituentsbutinvaryingproportions. cream for sale to consumers is produced with different fat contents.creamof lower fat content, 10 18%, is often referred to as half cream or coffee cream, it isincreasingly used for desserts and in cooking. cream with a higher fat content, typically35 40 %, is usually considerably thicker. it can be whipped into a thick froth and istherefore referred to as whipping cream.the milk fat in cream may vary from 10 to 75per cent.

    crammaybeclassifiedbroadlyas:(a)marketcream,whichisusedfordirectconsumptions,and (b)manufacturing cream,which is used for themanufacturingof dairy products.

    the various types of creamare:

    1. table cream

    2. Light cream

    3. coffee cream

    4. Whipping cream

    5. Heavy cream

    6. Plastic cream

    Table 1.1: Chemical composition of cream

    Constituents Percentage

    Water 45.45-68.2%

    Fat 25-60%

    Protein 1.69-2.54%

    Lactose 2.47-3.71%

    Ash 0.37-0.56%

    totalsolids 31.8-54.55%

    solidsnotfat 4.55-6.80%

    Production of Cream: the basic principle of cream separation, whether by gravity orcentrifugalmethod, isbasedon the fact thatmilk fat is lighter than theskimmilkportion.

  • Dairy Products Technology 3

    At 160c the average density of milk fat is 0.93 and skin milk 1.036. Hence when milk,whichmaybeconsidered tobeamixtureof fat (ascream)andskinmilk, is subjected toeither gravity or a centrifugal force (Fig. 1.1), the two components, viz. cream and skinmilk, by virtueof their differing densities stratify fromoneanother.

    centrifugalmethodisusedcommerciallytoseparatecreamfrommilk.Whenmilkenterstherapidly revolvingbowlof thecreamseparator, it is immediately subjected toacentrifugalforce,which is3000 to1600 timesgreater thangravitational force.Whileboth the fatandskimmilkaresubjectedtothecentrifugalforce,thedifferenceindensityaffectstheheavieri.e.portionskimmilkmoreintentlyandforcedtotheperipherywhilethefatportionmovestowards the centre.

    the skim milk and cream both form vertical walls within the and are separated by ledthrough separate outlets

    Fig. 1.1: Flow Diagram for the production of cream



    Preheating (650c)



    standardization (typeof cream required)

    Pasteurization (710c/20minor 95-1000c/15sec)

    Packaging (Laminatedpouch, Plastic containers,tin cans)

    storage (40c)

  • 4 Dairy Products Technology

    Cream neutralization (for butter- making)

    neutralizationofsourcreamforbuttermakingrefertoapartialreductioninacidity.creamis neutralized to avoid excise fat loss in buttermilk that result from churning highly acidpasteurizedcream, toguardagainst theproductionofanundesirableoff-flavor incream(which may result when high acid cream is pasteurized), to improve the keeping qualit