dairy products foods i: fundamentals. types of dairy products milk cream cultured dairy products...

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  • Dairy ProductsFoods I: Fundamentals

  • TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTSMilkCreamCultured Dairy ProductsFrozen Dairy ProductsConcentrated Dairy ProductsNon-Dairy ProductsButterCheese

  • MILKCan be plain or flavored (chocolate, strawberry, etc.)Usually fortified with VITAMIN DMeaning that it is added as a bonus!Raw milk is straight from the cow (untreated)It is generally then processed in the following ways before it is sent to stores:Pasteurized: Process of heating to destroy harmful bacteriaHomogenized: Process of agitating milk to help distribute the fat throughout so its uniform in texture (not clumpy)

  • TYPES OF MILKUHT Milk milk that is treated a super high temperatures to kill bacteriaCan be stored for up to 6 months without refrigerationWhole Milk Contains more than 3.25% milkfat2% Milk Contains roughly 2% milkfat1% Milk Contains roughly 1% milkfatSkim (Fat-Free) Milk Contains less than .5% milkfat

  • CREAMCream is a more concentrated form of milkOnce a cow is milked, the solids float to top (milkfat) and they are skimmed off and this becomes cream!It comes in the following varieties:Heavy (whipping) Cream Higher percentage of fat (85% cream, 15% milk)Light (whipping) CreamLower percentage of fat (70% cream, 30% milk)Half & HalfEven less fat (half 50% cream, half 50% milk)To Make Whipped Cream:Use cold bowl and whip cream until frothy to sweeten, gradually add sugar little by litteDO NOT OVERBEAT, or it will deflate and turn into butter!

  • CULTUREDMade from cultured, or specially grown bacteriaUsually thick in texture & tangy in flavorExamples of cultured dairy products include:YogurtThis is the dairy product with the lowest amt of fatCan be substituted for sour cream to reduce the fat in a recipeSour CreamButtermilk

  • FROZENDairy products that have been prepared and stored at very low temperaturesICE CREAMMade from milk, cream, sugar and flavoringGenerally has about 6-8 grams of fatREDUCED FAT has about 4-5 grams of fatLOWFAT has less than 3 grams of fatNONFAT has less than 0.5 grams of fatSHERBERTMade from milk, sugar and fruit juiceFROZEN YOGURTMade from cultured dairy product, sugar & flavoring

  • CONCENTRATEDDairy products that have had the water or liquids removed to increase the densityExamples include:EVAPORATED MILKHas some water removedCan be reconstituted and used as fresh milkAvailable in cansSWEETENED CONDENSED MILKHas water removed and sweetener addedUsed most commonly in bakingCannot replace fresh milk or evaporated milkAvailable in cansNONFAT DRY MILK POWERUsed by chefs because it does not spoil and it costs less than fresh milkCan be reconstituted and used as fresh milkComes powdered in packets (boxes) think hot cocoa

  • NON-DAIRYThese are used a substitutes for dairy products but offer similar resultsConvenient because they dont spoil as easily and can be consumed by lactose intolerant peopleExamples include:Soy Milk Great source of complete protein!Rice MilkNon-dairy creamerMargarineUsed hydrogenated veggie oils in place of animal fats meaning trans fat (chemically taking unsaturated and making them super-saturated!)

  • BUTTERMade by churning cream (either sweetened cream or sour cream) into butterIt is usually then colored artificially and either salted or left unsalted and packaged then soldWhipped butter just incorporates more air into the churning process resulting in a less dense end productIt can be frozen for a longer shelf-life but should ideally be refrigeratedCan spoil if left out (resulting in BITTER BUTTER remember Betty?!)Offers saturated fat (animal product)

  • CHEESECreated by allowing milk (un-homogenized) separate and skimming off the milkfat solids (CURDS) from the top, leaving only the liquid protein portion (WHEY)TYPES:UNRIPENED sold immediately, not allowed to ageEx. Cottage cheese, cream cheese, ricotta cheeseBetter for cooking because theyre more blendableRIPENED curds are packaged and aged (sometimes for years)Ex. Cheddar, Muenster, Provolone, SwissThe softer the cheese, the better it is for you while all cheeses have saturated fats, harder cheeses have higher levelsPROCESSED chemically made or alteredEx. Velveeta, cheese sauces, imitation cheeseThese tend to create really smooth, creamy cheeses & cheese saucesCOOKINGOvercooking causes cheese to become tough and rubbery

  • COOKINGDairy products are used commonly in baked goods, white sauces, soups, puddings, souffls and frozen desserts BUT BEWARE:SCUM FORMATIONSolid layer of skin forms on top of milk when heatingCan cause pressure to build up under scum and result in it boiling overPrevented by stirring constantly or covering pan SCORCHINGBurning of a milk-based product as a result of caramelization of the sugars in milk (lactose) which leave product looking and tasting funnyAvoid this by using a double-broiler and keeping the heat lowCURDLINGThis is when the acids, tannins, enzymes and proteins in milk coagulate and clump togetherIt can be prevented by using fresh milk on a low heat and stirring frequently

  • COOKING (White Sauces)White sauces are simply starch-thickened (think FLOUR) milk-based productsThere are 4 categories of white sauces:ROUX made from a paste of flour and fat (usually butter) and then milk is added and thickened (by boiling & reducing) to create sauceSLURRY made without the use of butter and by substituting fat-free milk instead; mixture is beaten in blender until smooth and then heated slowlyBISQUE base for cream soups that include shellfish; is generally rich and thick, sometimes made with creamCHOWDER base for cream soups that include veggies, meat, poultry or fish, made by using unthickened milk

    They come in 3 varieties:Thin - soupsMedium creamed veggies or meats, saucesThick - souffles

  • NUTRITIONDairy products offer a variety of crucial nutrients including:Vitamin D Fat-soluble vitamin, fortified in milk (added as bonuS!), also in SUNPrevents rickets!Vitamin A helps eyesight, fat-soluble vitamin, prevents night-blindnessCalcium mineral that helps bones stay strong, prevents osteoporosisRiboflavin vitamin b2, helps to build healthy skin, hair and eyes, also helps to metabolize nutrientsComplete Protein come from animals, help body to grow and repair become and stay strongSaturated Fat come from animals, needed for insulation, to transport fat-soluble vit. (ADEK!)Simple CarbohydratesSugars in the form of lactose (only found in milk not so much in cream)

    You should get up to 3 servings of dairy a day1 serving = 1 ounce cheese (4 small dice OR 1 slice)1 serving = 1 cup milk, yogurt, ice cream1 serving = cup ricotta

  • STORAGEDairy is highly perishable Should be used within 1 week of fresh sale dateShould be stored in tightly sealed containers, away from light This is because light destroys riboflavin (Vit. B2)

    CHEESE STORAGECheese should be stored in the refrigerator but may be frozen to prolongHard cheeses (and sharp) will give off their odor to other foods in the fridge while softer cheese will adopt the scents that are in the fridge (like onions, garlic, etc.)If a cheese becomes moldy, you should cut off the mold within inch and then its okay to eathttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHmXAb3G0ek&feature=related